Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2011 | vol. 37 | No 4

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The compost derived from cellulosic material coming from the Public Utility Company in Zabrze

(Poland) was investigated for its capability for adsorbing acid dyes from aqueous solution at various concentrations of the dyes and the compost dosages. Four acid dyes were investigated: Acid Red 18 (AR-18), Acid Blue

9 (AB-9), Acid Green 16 (AG-16) and Acid Black 1 (ABk-1). The adsorption isotherms were determined by

comparing the experimental data with the isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin–Radushkevich

models). The sorption capacity of the compost depended on the initial concentrations of dyes in the solution,

compost dosage, and on the structure of dyes. The maximum sorption capacities of the compost for adsorbing

particular dyes may be ordered as follows: ABk-1 > AG-16 > AB-9 > AR-18. The amounts of bound and the

percentages of removed acid dyes from effluent depended on the adsorbent dosage. The growth of the dye removal percentages with growing adsorbent mass may be attributed to the growth of the adsorbent uptake surface

with growth of the adsorbent mass. The dyes were bound onto the surface of compost through the electrostatic

interaction between the surface (negatively charged at pH > pHPZC) and the dye cations (AG-16), and/or through

the hydrogen bond between the functional groups of the humic matter in compost (–OH, –COOH) and the

functional surface groups of AR-18, AB-9 and ABk-1 dyes (–OH, –NH2

). At the experiment conditions, the

Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduskevich adsorption isotherm models fitted the equilibrium data very well (much

better than the Langmuir one). The values of 1/n in the Freundlich equation and E in the Dubinin-Raduskevich

one indicate the favourable adsorption. The studied compost may be used as a low-cost sorbent for the removal

of acid dyes from wastewater released by textile industries. However, elevated values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the final solutions may enhance the solubility of humic compounds.

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Authors and Affiliations

C. Rosik-Dulewska
J. Kyzioł-Komosińska
A. Dzieniszewska
M. Pająk
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Photodegradation by sunlight radiation is one of the most destructive pathways for pesticides after

their application in the field. The generated photoproducts can exhibit various toxicological properties and affect non–target organisms. Sulcotrione is a herbicide believed to be a relatively non–toxic alternative to atrazine

herbicides used on corn fields. Despite many tests required for placing plant protection products on the market,

it still happens that transformation pathway and the toxicological profile of these compounds is not fully understood. The results presented in this article are complementary to the research performed by a research group

from National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) at the University of Blaise Pascal (Auvergne, France).

Sulcotrione is one of main herbicides used to protect the maize plantations in the region of Auvergne (France),

as well as in Poland. As part of the experiments, the distribution of sulcotrione under the influence of polychromatic radiation (fluorescent lamp, l > 295 nm, suitable for environmental tests) in aqueous solution of pH 6.5

was tested. The main products of these reactions were 1H–xanthene–1,9–dione–3,4–dihydro–6–methylsulfonyl

(CP) and 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-benzoic acid (CMBA), which are the result of intra-molecular cyclization

and hydrolysis of sulcotrione, respectively. These products were quantified by using HPLC-diode array detector analysis. The studies clearly show an increase in toxicity towards tested organism (Vibrio fischeri bacteria)

with the increase of irradiation time and appearance of the photoproducts. The results suggest that the observed

increase in toxicity may be rather attributed to the occurrence of the same minor photoproducts than to the

presence of the major photoproducts (CP and CMBA). Identification of the minor photoproducts could not be

performed using the current instrumental equipment.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jarosław Wiszniowski
Frederique Bonnemoy
Alexandra Ter Halle
Richard Claire
Jacques Bohatier
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The paper presents the results of experiments on the influence of the organic matter’s characteristics on the formation potential of water chlorination by-products – representatives of the following groups:

trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate and chloropicrin. The products of water fractionation (the hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids, hydrophobic and hydrophilic bases, and hydrophobic and

hydrophilic neutral fractions) were chlorinated with sodium hypochlorite. Its dose was adjusted to obtain a

residual free chlorine concentration between 3 and 5 mg/dm3

after 24 h. After this time, the water chlorination

by-products were analyzed with gas chromatography. The results’ analysis has defined the fractions, which have

the highest potential to form particular groups of volatile organic water chlorination by-products.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Włodyka-Bergier
T. Bergier
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The aim of the performed experiments was to analyse relationships occurring between endophytic

bacteria from the Herbaspirillum genus and Sinorhizobium meliloti Bp nodule bacteria and to examine the

condition of plants subjected to coinoculation with the above-mentioned strains in in vitro conditions. In experiments examining the impact of Herbaspirillum frisingense on Sinorhizobium meliloti BP, the stimulation of

growth of inoculated bacteria from the Sinorhizobium genus was recorded in all three combinations (48-hour

culturing, sediment and supernatant). On the other hand, the examination of interactions between the Sinorhizobium meliloti strain and Herbaspirillum frisingense strain revealed that in the case of culture and supernatant, an

antagonistic action was recorded. Besides, it was found that such coinoculation exerted a beneficial influence on

the process of seed lucerne symbiosis and yielding as confirmed by increased numbers of root nodules, higher

nitrogenase activity and greater plant mass.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Niewiadomska
D. Swędrzyńska
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The induction of phytoremediation by addition of complex substrates, such as sewage sludge (e.g.

from the food industry), allows for better conditions of plant growth, however, it also increases the risk of chemical compounds leaching to the soil solution. Biogenic compounds occurring in sludge such as nitrogen, organic

carbon and phosphorus when migrating with soil solution down the soil profile can lead to underground water

contamination. The paper assesses the effect of sewage sludge inducted phytoextraction of Zn, Cd and Pb with

the use of Sinapis alba L. (White mustard), Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa) and Trifolium resupinatum L. (Persian

clover) as well as the migration of biogenic compounds (nitrogen, organic carbon and phosporus) in soil solution. Research was conducted in controlled conditions of a phytotronic chamber in which the lysimetric experiment was carried out in order to monitor the changes of total nitrogen, ammonia, phosphates, organic carbon

and pH every 3 weeks during the 112 days of the entire experiment. Based on the obtained results it was found

that there is no risk of underground water contamination by investigated substances present in sewage sludge,

because there was no indication of increased ammonia and carbon migration to the deeper parts of the soil

profile.The only exception was the migration of nitrogen compounds other than ammonia (possibly nitrates and

nitrites). Due to sewage sludge application the highest concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (211 mgN-NH4


-1), total nitrogen (299 mg N l-1) and organic carbon (200 mg TOC l-1) were noted at a layer of 30 cm (from top

of the column/lysimeter) after 3 weeks of the conducted process. With time a decrease of ammonium nitrogen

as well as organic carbon concentration in all columns was noted. There was no indication of phosphates in the

soil solution during the entire experiment, which was due to the high cation exchange capacity of the soil matrix.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Fijałkowski
K. Rosikoń
A. Grobelak
M. Kacprzak
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The aim of the presented research was to analyse the pollution of the Kozłowa Góra Dam Reservoir

with PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr). The investigated water

and bottom sediments were sampled from two sampling points in November, 2009. The sampling points were

located in the southern part of the Kozłowa Góra Dam Reservoir. The samples of bottom sediments were taken

from the surface layer of 5 cm thickness. The extraction of PCBs from the bottom sediments was performed

according to the EPA 3550B standard. For the sequential extraction analysis of metals from the sampled bottom

sediments, the method suggested by Tessier was applied. Based on the obtained results the water and bottom

sediments from the Kozłowa Góra Dam Reservoir were polluted with polychlorinated biphenyls. The highest

concentration of the investigated PCB congeners in bottom sediments was determined in the sampling point

No. 1 (2.78 µg/kg d.m.), whereas in the sampling point No. 2 this level was over 20-fold lower which might

result from the inflow of these compounds with the waters of the Brynica river. In both sampling points the investigated bottom sediments were predominated by higher chlorinated PCBs with comparable contents of 86%

and 85%, respectively. The level of pollution in the investigated bottom sediments (calculated per dry matter)

with polychlorinated biphenyls did not exceed the level of TEL (< 0.02 mg/kg). The PEL value (3.5 mg/kg) was

exceeded in the case of cadmium in the bottom sediment from the sampling point No. 2 and also lead (91 mg/kg)

from both sampling points. The first two fractions with the mobile forms of metals are the most sensitive fractions to any changes of the environmental conditions in the benthic zone. In those fractions significant contents

of lead, cadmium, nickel and zinc were observed.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Rosińska
L. Dąbrowska
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In the paper, the research results on the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons (C7 to C30) on constructed

wetlands have been presented. The research has been realized on the semi-technical scale constructed wetlands.

planted with reed Phragmites australis. The experimental installation is located on the filling station in Balice and treats the fraction of stormwater from this utility. The concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons

in analyzed stormwater were between 96.02 µg/dm3 and 6177.33 µg/dm3

, and from 47.55 µg/dm3 to 5011.14


in effluent from the installation. The average total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal effectiveness was

48%, the values ranged from 19% to 81%. Hydrocarbons C14 to C18 were removed with the lowest effectiveness (26%–32%), the lighter hydrocarbons – with higher one (39%–68%), however the highest removal

effectiveness were observed for the hydrocarbons with the highest carbon atoms numbers (from 51% for C20

to 92%–93% for C26–C30).

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Bergier
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The aim of this work was to determine the effect of various cadmium and copper concentrations on

the activated sludge dehydrogenase activity. The investigations were carried out in six aerated chambers with

activated sludge, volume of 1L each, by the continuous culture method (one control chamber, not contaminated

with heavy metals and five with 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8 mg L-1 Cu+2 and 0.1; 0.3; 0.9; 2.7; 8.1 mg L-1 Cd2+). Cadmium

sulfate and copper sulfate as a source of heavy metals were used. The concentrations of these metal ions, causing

50% dehydrogenase activity inhibition were determined. The particular attention was paid to the toxic effect of

metal ions, as well as the variations of the microbial respiration activity proceeded during toxins exposition. The

investigation showed that even the lowest concentration of the investigated metal ions caused significant changes of the activated sludge dehydrogenases activity. Copper ions showed to be more toxic than cadmium ions.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Małachowska-Jutsz
A. Ziembińska
K. Matyja
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The study of groundwaters was carried out in two different forest ecosystems of Słowiński National

Park: Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis and Empetro nigri-Pinetum in the period of 2002-2005. Differences were found in the position of the groundwater table and in the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus

compounds in the investigated forest associations. In the Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis association

the groundwater table was found on average at a depth of -73.3 cm, while in Empetro nigri-Pinetum at -90.2

cm. No statistically significant effect of precipitation on the position of the groundwater table was found in

this study. Statistical calculations (U Mann-Whitney test) for groundwaters in the analyzed forest associations

showed statistically significant differences in the dynamics of concentrations of total nitrogen (T-N), organic

nitrogen (Norg.), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3

), total phosphorus (T-P), organic phosphorus (Porg.) and the level of


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Authors and Affiliations

A. Parzych
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The post-processes coke wastewater treatment was carried out using flat ultrafiltration membranes

with a variable polysulfone concentration in membrane solution (15 wt% - 17% wt.) and variable evaporation

time of the solvent from the polymer film surface (0s, 2s, 5s). The ultrafiltration process was carried out with the

transmembrane pressure of 0.4 MPa and the linear speed of water flow over the surface of the membrane at 2

m / s. For all the membranes transport characteristic of de-ionized water describing the dependence of the volumetric flow on the transmembrane pressure was done. Since none of the ultrafiltration membranes prepared had

provided a sufficiently high degree of pollutants removal from wastewater, it was post-treated by RO method.

The wastewater treated this way can be used as technical water for coke quenching. The calculations based on

the assumptions of the hydraulic model of filtration resistance allowed to predict the efficiency of ultrafiltration membranes used in the process. To that end, for each of the membranes, the following parameters were

determined experimentally: the alterations of effluent stream volume over the time of the low-pressure filtration,

the total hydraulic resistance and the resistance constituents such as „new” membrane resistance, the resistance

generated by polarization layer and the resistance caused by fouling - reversible and irreversible.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Mielczarek
J. Bohdziewicz

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