Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2011 | vol. 37 | No 3

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The investigations were carried out in order to assess the effect of thermophilic fermentation on

changes in concentration of seven congeners with codes: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 in sewage sludge.

The total concentration of PCBs was the highest before the process of thermophilic fermentation. On the tenth

day of the process of fermentation it was found that the total concentration of LCB doubled the previous level,

whereas in higher chlorinated PCBs this value decreased twice. After the process of thermophilic digestion,

all the determined congeners of PCBs were still present. However, their total concentration was reduced by

84% on the fourteenth day of the process. Low concentration of heavy metal ions in the liquid phase of sewage

sludge was observed. The metal ions precipitated and remained bound throughout the stabilization process.

Metal speciation analysis was performed, and revealed some changes in the chemical forms of the metals during the stabilization process of sludge. The highest increase of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium, and chromium

concentration was observed in the organic-sulfide fraction, whereas the highest increase of lead was found in

the residual fraction. Thermophilic methane fermentation did not cause the accumulation of heavy metals in the

mobile fractions of sludge.

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Authors and Affiliations

L. Dąbrowska
A. Rosińska
M. Janosz-Rajczyk
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Sewage and solid waste can be a valuable source of materials used directly or indirectly in manufacturing of usable products. These processes are associated with elimination of pollutants from liquid and

solid wastes. The best-known methods of waste management are production of biogas and composting. This

paper focuses on the possibility of obtaining biomass as a source of protein feed (whose value, in terms of the

composition of aminoacids and microelements, is comparable with conventional feed, e.g. soymeal, bonemeal

or fishmeal). Sewage components for bacterial, fungal, algal and vascular plants’ culture are characterized as

a source of protein feed. Methods of industrial scale production of enzymes, mainly proteases and lipases that

have broad applications in various industries, are discussed. Development perspectives of inexpensive methods

of usable products from waste production are showed. Interdisciplinary nature of presented issues, which requires cooperation of specialists in biology, chemistry and technology, is emphasized.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Łebkowska
M. Załęska-Radziwiłł
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The article presents the results of the research on the water samples taken from the Krakow water

distribution system and their pollution by haloacetic acids: monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, bromochloroacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. The water samples were

taken from the extremities of the distribution systems (Raba and Bielany) in the city of Krakow. Both analyzed

plants use the chlorination as the water treatment process, however, water for Raba and Bielany comes from

different surface waters and differs in quality and organic matter concentration. These plants also apply different

water treatment processes and their distribution systems have a different size. The objective of this study was

to measure the haloacetic acids levels in these two water distribution systems, asses the correlation between the

total trihalomethanes and the sum of six haloacetic acids, determine if trihalomethanes can be a good indicator

to predict haloacetic acids concentration in water distribution systems.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Włodyka-Bergier
T. Bergier
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This paper addresses the issue of antibacterial drugs, estrogens and cytostatic drugs’ presence in

surface waters and their influence on animals. The ecotoxicity and the impact of three active compounds: ciprofloxacin, 17α-ethinylestradiol and 5-fluorouracil on protozoa, crustaceans and fish were examined. Acute

tests (crustaceans’ immobilization test, fish survival test, enzymatic test on Daphnia magna) and chronic tests

(growth test on protozoa, reproduction test on crustaceans and juvenile growth test on two species of fish) were

performed. Acute toxicity studies revealed diversified species - sensitivity to the tested compounds. Crustaceans Artemia salina were the most resistant to all three pharmaceuticals. Fish also demonstrated low sensitivity

to ciprofloxacin and 5-fluorouracil (LC(EC)50-96h > 100 mg/l). In the survival tests, the greatest harm in respect

to fish and crustaceans was demonstrated by 17α-ethinylestradiol, and in the enzymatic tests - by ciprofloxacin.

In all chronic tests, the toxic effects of drugs were proven. Tested compounds limited reproduction of crustaceans and growth of protozoa and fry. The risk assessment, conducted on the basis of the PEC/PNEC quotient,

showed a significant risk in relation to aquatic animals caused by the presence of 17α-ethinylestradiol and

5-fluorouracil in concentrations detected in surface waters.

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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Załęska-Radziwiłł
Maria Łebkowska
Katarzyna Affek
Agnieszka Zarzeczna
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Fruit and vegetables constitute an essential part of human diet and that is why they should be “safe”.

Chemical contaminants of plant origin in food, including the pesticide residues, are defined as critical differentiators of quality and food safety. Pesticide residues are found in fruits, vegetables, cereals and herbs chemically

protected at low concentrations, but they are one of the elements that affect the quality of healthcare.

The aim of this study was to assess the pesticide residues in apples from the north-eastern Poland (Lubelskie,

Podlaskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie provinces) and get an answer whether any contamination in fruit from the

region is similar to that in other countries and whether it can lead to exposure of consumer’s health. Also assessed compliance of used pesticides with applicable law and found residues were compared with the Maximum

Residue Levels (MRLs). The study showed that 59% of the samples of apples from the north-eastern Poland

contain pesticide residues below the MRL, and 7% above the limits. The estimated dietary intake has shown

the chronic dietary exposure of the most vulnerable groups - children and adults to the pesticide residues in

Polish apples was relatively low and does not constitute a health risk to. The results show that apples from

north-eastern Poland are safe.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Łozowicka
P. Kaczyński
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In the paper toxicity assessment of hospital wastewaters samples was performed using direct-contact

tests consisting of five species, which represent three different trophic levels of the food chain. IC50 or EC50 values were estimated for each tested organism: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata IC50/72h 18.77%, Daphnia magna

EC50/48h 20.76%, Thamnocephalus platyurus EC50/24h 22.62%, Artemia salina EC50/24h 59.87% and Vibrio fisheri

EC50/15min 46.17%. Toxic potential of hospital wastewater was described using a system of wastewater toxicity

classification. The toxic units (TU) values estimated for each test indicate that hospital wastewaters are toxic

(Class III). The variable results of the tests’ sensitivity confirmed the need of application of microbiotests battery with organisms of different trophic levels.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Zgórska
A. Arendarczyk
E. Grabińska-Sota
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Compared to other European countries, Poland has scarce drinking water resources and exhibits

significant variation in annual runoff. On the other hand, the geothermal water resources present in sedimentary/structural basins, mostly in the Polish Lowlands and the Podhale geothermal system, not only provide a

valuable source of renewable energy, which is utilized, although only to a limited extent, but can also be used

for many other purposes. The paper presents the results of studies related to the desalination of low dissolved

mineral content geothermal waters from the Bańska IG-1 well using a dual hybrid system based on ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. The desalination of geothermal waters may be considered a possible solution leading

to the decentralization of drinking water supply. In many cases, using cooled waters for drinking purposes may

be considered an alternative method of disposing of them, in particular for open drain arrangements, i.e. where

cooled water is dumped into surface waters.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Tomaszewska
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Over the two-year study (2008–2009) we monitored the influence of integrated and conventional

production systems on microbiological activity in soil and strawberry yield. The experiment also involved

fertilizers applied in three variants of treatment. The studied parameters were monitored over 2008 and 2009 by

determining the total number of soil microorganisms, the number of ammonifying bacteria and the strawberry

yield. The results of the study suggest the pronounced inhibitory effect of insecticides on number of studied

microorganism groups in all three conventionally treated variants, over the both years of study, which further

infers negligible stimulative influence of strawberry plants on yield.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Pešaković
S. Milenković
D. Dragutin
L. Mandić
I.S. Glišić
J. Luković
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The object of the investigation was metal contamination of bottom sediments of the Skroda and

Chwaliszówka rivers, which are the right contributaries of the Lusatian Neisse river, draining the territory of

the so called “anthropogenic lake district”. The district came into existence as a result of mining activities in the

border of Silesia and Lusatia, which date from the half of 19th century to 1974. The district includes about 100

reservoirs, of the total area of over 150 ha, which are from about 30 to 100 years old.

The rocks accompanying the Miocene coal-bearing formations were deposited on waste dumps. The dumps

form embankments of the aquifers arising as a result of post-exploitation mining subsidence. The streams dewatering waste dumps inflow directly or indirectly to the Chwaliszówka and Skroda rivers. The pyrite is the

mineral present in mine waste material. The pyrite weathering products inflow into surface waters and affect

adversely the water quality. In the last stage of migration the pollutants are accumulated in the bottom sediments

of rivers and lakes. The samples of bottom sediments of the two rivers were analysed by means of a five-step

sequential extraction procedure performed for the partitioning of selected trace metals (Fe, Mn, As, Cr and Al).

It was determined that the bottom sediments of the two analysed rivers contain significant concentrations of

aluminium and iron. The concentrations of other metals (Mn, Cr and As) are in the range of geochemical background of water sediments in Poland. Concentrations of arsenium, chromium and manganese, which are bound

to easy-available fractions (I – exchangeable and II – bound to carbonates) are not significant, so it could be

assumed that they are not expected to be released and they do not threaten the river ecological system. There is,

however, the possibility of the aluminium and iron re-mobilisation, taking into account the high concentrations

of easy-available fractions of these metals in the sediment. Fe and Al are potential source of water contamination, and re-mobilisation of these metals will produce the aggravation of quality parameters of river waters.

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Skoczyńska-Gajda
M. Labus
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Zinc (II) removal using low-cost sorbents requires a proper process parametric study to determine

its optimal performance characteristics. In this respect, the present study proposes a new modeling and simulation procedure for heavy metal removal system and is carried out to optimize input variables such as initial pH,

adsorbent dosage, and contact time for biosorption of Zinc (II) by using bentonite. The proposed experimental

system is cost-effective and requires less calculation for determining optimal values, i.e., input variables and

their related removal capacity, Rem%. To optimize the adsorption process, cubic spline curve fitting and numerical differentiation techniques are used for required calculations. According to the proposed calculations, the

removal capacity is calculated as 98.66%, while the optimal values are calculated as initial pH – 6.76, adsorbent

dosage – 1.14 g L-1, contact time – 13 minutes. To evaluate the results, full factor experimental design and 3 way

ANOVA test are used for comparison.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Mesci

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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