Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2003 | vol. 29 | No 4

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Suitable doses and forms of mineral fertilizers play a significant role in soil-less reclamation of mining wastes. It concerns especially nitrogen, because in this case its mineral and organic forms play a definite role. The relationship between each form is affected by a petrographic and mineral composition, weathering processes of waste material on the waste heaps, and also chemical composition and relationship between the main components, such as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. Very important are also tree and shrub species introduced on the heaps, as different species can be characterized by individual nutrient requirements. The investigations showed that the period of first 2-3 years determines the success of interventions in biological reclamation. This refers mostly to nitrogen. Phosphoric fertilization plays an important role in later period, while potassium fertilization is not necessary, because waste material contains considerable quantities of total, and also of exchangeable and dissolvable in water potassium.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zygmunt Strzyszcz
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The method of solid-phase extraction on TENAX TA beads was applied in order to assess the content of potentially bioavailable PAH fractions in soils highly contaminated with these compounds. The extraction was carried out at 20°C and 60°C to enable separation of two fractions: ,,easily bioavailable" and ,.hardly bioavailable", correspondingly. The data obtained indicated a relatively low content of potentially bioavailable PAHs in soils with 4 and 5+6-ringed compounds as dominant groups.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bożena Smreczak
Barbara Maliszewska-Kordybach
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Many techniques of soil bioremediation enhancement have been developed recently. Two of them are application of weak electric field which induces favorable electrokinetic phenomena in the soil environment and surface active agents application which increase the biodegradation degree of poorly soluble contamination. During experiments the influence of the electric field and surfactants (biosurfactants, non-ionic and anionic surfactants) on the Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis bacteria migration in soil was determined. The intensity of the biodegradation of contamination was also estimated. The results show substantial impact of the electric field and surfactants on the intensity and direction of bacteria migration in soil as well as on the intensity of the contamination biodegradation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Piechowiak
Andrzej Olszanowski
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The effects of using three different biopreparations (one natural N2 and two commercial Kl and K2) in petroleum hydrocarbons age-polluted clay soil were studied. The samples of soil were taken from refinery in Czechowice-Dziedzice and classified as heavily degraded in proportion C:N = 100:0,7. Changes after introducing biopreparations into soil (bioaugmentation), their influence on microflora development and effects of removing polluting substances were studied. Bioaugmentation did not result in intensive growth of bacterial number, which was on the control sample's level during experiment. Soil's biodegradation activity also increased in level smaller than expected.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Zabłocka-Godlewska
Korneliusz Miksch
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The phytoremediation effectiveness of heavy metals contaminated soils in the area of Upper Silesia was assessed on the basis of its real quantity in biomass harvest per 1 ha. The content of each heavy metal was compared with its quantity in the fraction of mobile and total value in horizon till 20 cm depth. The content of Zn uptake in carrot or parsley harvest (leaves and root) did not exceed 2.5% of its quantity in mobile fraction and 0.05% of its total content. The Cd and Pb values amount: 2.41%, 0.1% and 1.47%, 0.01 6%, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Gworek
Krystyna Jeske
Joanna Kwapisz
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A significant effect of soil pollution levels on yielding of Jerusalem artichoke was determined. Depending on the treatment, the decrease in the yield ranged between 6.62% and 88.74% in comparison with the control. High soil concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu and Zn are confirmed by their contents in the test plant. The contents in Jerusalem was increasing with the level of soil pollution with heavy metals and ranged between 0.65-29.69 mg Cd; 1.40-7.32 mg Pb; 1.76-57.61 mg Ni; 1.65-9.23 mg Cu; 25.04-691.35 mg Zn/kg soil d.m. The smallest diversification of the studied metals contents was registered for lead and copper. A comparison of heavy metal per cent utilisation by Jerusalem reveals that it is possible to arrange the elements in the following order beginning from the highest values: Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb. The order shows that Jerusalem utilised Cd to the greatest extent and Pb to the smallest. The obtained results allow for a conclusion that Jerusalem artichoke could be utilised for reclamation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Antonkiewicz
Czesława Jasiewicz
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Heavy metal contamination often accompanies pollution with petroleum oil derivatives. Metal ions may considerably affect the process of hydrocarbon biodegradation. The results obtained for bacterial strains Gordon ia a/kanivorans S7 and Pseudom on as fluorescens SL3 indicated the limitation of cell growth and reduced ability of degradation of petroleum oil hydrocarbons in the presence ferric ions in the range of 15-100 mg Fe/dm3. However, the addition of these ions in the range of 1-7 mg Fe/dm3 might appear to be advantageous for biodegradation process. Supplementation with ferric ions in the range of 50-100 mg Fe/dm' decreases emulsifying activity of tested strains. The excess of these ions is accumulated in the bacterial cells.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Kwapisz
Aneta Piątkowska
Małgorzata Piotrowicz-Wasiak
Jacek Polak
Stanisław Bielecki
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In the presented work, relations between activity of dehydrogenase and the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in light soil fertilised with sewage sludge was studied. Sewage sludge was introduced to the soil in the following doses: 30 Mg/ha, 75 Mg/ha, 150 Mg/ha, 300 Mg/ha and 600 Mg/ha. The content of PAI-ls in sewage sludge-amended soil was proportional to sewage sludge dose. Soil fertilisation with sewage sludge stimulated the activity of the dehydrogenase enzymes. With passing of time, a gradual decrease in the activity of dehydrogenase was observed. The coefficients of correlation between activity of the enzyme and PAH content showed that an addition of sewage sludge (with PAI-I content of 5712 μg/kg) had a stimulating effect on dehydrogenase activity in doses of 75 and 150 Mg/ha.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Baran
Elżbieta J. Bielińska
Patryk Oleszczuk
Ewa Baranowska
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Principles of bioluminescence have been described as well as some examples of the biotests that utilize natural bacterial luminescence for assessment of the effects of environment contamination and remediation have been reviewed. The achievements of the last eight years and a new outlook on using rapid biotests for waters, wastewaters, sediments and soils toxicity investigations have been taken into account.
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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Cwalina
Anna Wiącek-Rosińska
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The aim of this work was to determine the influence of native and alien keratinolytic fungi inocula on the petroleum hydrocarbon removal rate in soil covered and not covered with hair. The hair was the major nutrient for keratinolytic fungi and other soil microorganisms. The fungal inocula accelerated the petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation process during the first month of the experiment. During the second month, TPH removal rates were similar for soil inoculated and not inoculated with fungi. The highest petroleum hydrocarbon removal rate was observed in soil inoculated with native fungal strains. The TPI-I removal rates were about 64% in soil covered with hair and 77% in soil not covered with hair. The lowest removal rate was observed in soil not inoculated with fungi (60%). The hair applied as additional nitrogen, sulfur and carbon source did not impact, or slightly inhibited, the petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation process. The fungal inocula caused dramatic changes in soil fungal qualitative composition.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wioletta Przystaś
Krzysztof Ulfig
Korneliusz Miksch
Aleksandra Witała
Jerzy Szdzuj
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In this experiment mixed bacteria cultures, adapted to high concentrations of oil products were used. The application of the mixed bacterial cultures to oil biodegradation in oil of different pH values (5, 7. 9), was also studied. The biodegradation process was detected in all investigated soils independly on pH values, both in soil with autochthonous bacteria and with addition of mixed bacteria cultures. In the soil inoculated with mixed bacteria cultures after 21 days reduction of oil content was 40% (± I .63%) in acid soil, 42% (±0.82%) in soil with neutral pH and 31% (±1.41%) in soil with pH about 9. After 42 days biodegradation was carried out in all investigated pH values at about 60% (± 1.63%) level of reduction of oil products. In control samples (only with autochthonous bacteria) during this time (42 days) the average 49% (±1.63%) decrease of oil products content was obtained. Addition of inoculum into soil influenced the effectivity of this process. The increase of oil removal by about I 0% was noted.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hanka Boszczyk-Maleszak
Anna Zabost
Ewa Bieszkiewicz
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In 2002 the study of the impact of coal mine methane leakage (in November 2000) due to the damage of underground gaspipe (63 PE) was undertaken. The properties of soils, plant cover conditions and the composition of groundwater on the area of allotment garden in Włocławek was studied. For the investigation soils were sampled from the following depths: 0-20, 20-40, 60-80 and 100-120 cm of 8 bore-holes; groundwater and plant material (thuja needles) from these sites were sampled, too. The present state of the soil environment was estimated on the base of indirect indices, which reflect two year impact of the excess of methane: the pH of soils, total sulphur contents, redox properties of soils and the activity of dehydrogenase. It was observed that methane leaking unsettled the dynamic equilibrium in gaseous phase of soil. The increase of methane content caused the reductive condition in soil and disturbed its microbial and enzymatic activities. The deficit of oxygen caused negative effect on thuja plants and their complete damage in extreme sites. The study showed also still high content of methane and tetrahydrothiophene in groundwater.
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Authors and Affiliations

Halina Dąbkowska-Naskręt

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