Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

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Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2021 | vol. 28 | No 4

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Abstract

Reliable measurement uncertainty is a crucial part of the conformance/nonconformance decision-making process in the field of Quality Control in Manufacturing. The conventional GUM-method cannot be applied to CMM measurements primarily because of lack of an analytical relationship between the input quantities and the measurement. This paper presents calibration uncertainty analysis in commercial CMM-based Coordinate Metrology. For the case study, the hole-plate calibrated by the PTB is used as a workpiece. The paper focuses on thermo-mechanical errors which immediately affect the dimensional accuracy of manufactured parts of high-precision manufacturers. Our findings have highlighted some practical issues related to the importance of maintaining thermal equilibrium before the measurement. The authors have concluded that the thermal influence as an uncertainty contributor of CMM measurement result dominates the overall budgets for this example. The improved calibration uncertainty assessment technique considering thermal influence is described in detail for the use of a wide range of CMM users.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Meirbek Mussatayev
1
Meifa Huang
1
Marat Nurtas
2
Azamat Arynov
3

  1. Guilin University of Electronic Technology, School of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, 1 Jinji Rd, Guilin, Guangxi, 541004, China
  2. International Information Technology University, Department of Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Kazakhstan
  3. School of Engineering at Warwick University, United Kingdom
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Abstract

In this paper, we present metrology and control methods and techniques for electromagnetically actuated microcantilevers. The electromagnetically actuated cantilevers belong to the micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS), which can be used in high resolution force and mass change investigations. In the described experiments, silicon cantilevers with an integrated Lorentz current loop were investigated. The electromagnetically actuated cantilevers were characterized using a modified optical beam deflection (OBD) system, whose architecture was optimized in order to increase its resolution. The sensitivity of the OBD system was calibrated using a reference cantilever, whose spring constant was determined through thermomechanical noise analysis registered interferometrically. The optimized and calibrated OBD system was used to observe the resonance and bidirectional static deflection of the electromagnetically deflected cantilevers. After theoretical analysis and further experiments, it was possible to obtain setup sensitivity equal to 5.28 mV/nm.
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Authors and Affiliations

Daniel Kopiec
1
Wojciech Majstrzyk
2
Bartosz Pruchnik
1
Ewelina Gacka
1
Dominik Badura
1
Andrzej Sierakowski
2
Paweł Janus
2
Teodor Gotszalk
1

  1. Wrocław University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystems Electronics and Photonics, Department of Nanometrology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wrocław 50-372, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network, Institute of Microelectronics and Fotonics, Lotników 32/46, Warsaw 02-668, Poland
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Abstract

Heart rate is constantly changing under the influence of many control signals, as manifested by heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is a nonstationary, irregularly sampled signal, the spectrum of which reveals distinct bands of high, low, very low and ultra-low frequencies (HF, LF, VLF, ULF). VLF and ULF components are the least understood, and their analysis requires HRV records lasting many hours. Moreover, there are still no well-established methods for the reliable extraction of these components. The aim of this work was to select, implement and compare methods which can solve this problem. The performance of multiband filtering (MBF), empirical mode decomposition and the short-time Fourier transform was tested, using synthetic HRV as the ground truth for methods evaluation as well as real data of three patients selected from 25 polysomnographic records with a clear HF component in their spectrograms. The study provided new insights into the components of long-term HRV, including the character of its amplitude and frequency modulation obtained with the Hilbert transform. In addition, the reliability of the extracted HF, LF, VLF and ULF waveforms was demonstrated, and MBF turned out to be the most accurate method, though the signal is strongly nonstationary. The possibility of isolating such waveforms is of great importance both in physiology and pathophysiology, as well as in the automation of medical diagnostics based on HRV.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Adamczyk
1
Adam G. Polak
1

  1. Department of Electronic and Photonic Metrology, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, B. Prusa Str. 53/55, 50-317 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

A new solution to the problem of frequency estimation of a single sinusoid embedded in the white Gaussian noise is presented. It exploits, approximately, only one signal cycle, and is based on the well-known 2nd order autoregressive difference equation into which a downsampling is introduced. The proposed method is a generalization of the linear prediction based Prony method for the case of a single undamped sinusoid. It is shown that, thanks to the proposed downsampling in the linear prediction signal model, the overall variance of the least squares solution of frequency estimation is decreased, when compared to the Prony method, and locally it is even close to the Cramér–Rao Lower Bound, which is a significant improvement. The frequency estimation variance of the proposed solution is comparable with, computationally more complex, the Matrix Pencil and the Steiglitz–McBride methods. It is shown that application of the proposed downsampling to the popular smart DFT frequency estimation method also significantly reduces the method variance and makes it even better than the least squares smart DFT. The noise immunity of the proposed solution is achieved simultaneously with the reduction of computational complexity at the cost of narrowing the range of measured frequencies, i.e. a sinusoidal signal must be sufficiently oversampled to apply the proposed downsampling in the autoregressive model. The case of 64 samples per period with downsampling up to 16, i.e. 1/4th of the cycle, is presented in detail, but other sampling scenarios, from 16 to 512 samples per period, are considered as well.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Duda
1
Tomasz P. Zieliński
2

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Biomedical Engineering, Department of Measurement and Electronics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Computer Science, Electronics and Telecommunications, Institute of Telecommunications, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

This paper proposes a new approach called the Predictive Kalman Filter (PKF) which predicts and compensates model errors of inertial sensors to improve the accuracy of static alignment without the use of external assistance. The uncertain model error is the main problem in the field as the Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors have bias which change over time, and these errors are not all observable. The proposed filter determines an optimal equivalent model error by minimizing a quadratic penalty function without augmenting the system state space. The optimization procedure enables the filter to decrease both model uncertainty and external disturbances. The paper first presents the complete formulation of the proposed filter. Then, a nonlinear alignment model with a large misalignment angle is considered. Experimental results demonstrate that the new method improves the accuracy and rapidness of the alignment process as the convergence time is reduced from 550 s to 50 s, and the azimuth misalignment angle correctness is decreased from 52" 47" to 4" 0:02".
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Authors and Affiliations

Hassan Majed Alhassan
1
Nemat Allah Ghahremani
1

  1. Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Tehran 15875-1774, Iran
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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to compare three different methods of analysis of results of lightning impulse breakdown voltage measurements of solid materials such as insulating pressboard. These three methods are the series method, the step method and the up-and-down method which are applied to withstand voltage estimation commonly in high voltage engineering. To obtain the data needed for the analysis a series of experimental studies was carried out. It included studies of mineral oil and natural ester impregnating 1 mm of thick cellulose-based pressboard. In order to show the distribution of breakdown voltage the Weibull distribution was additionally applied in data analysis. The results were also assessed from the viewpoint of dielectric liquid used for impregnation. The studies carried out showed that series and step methods give comparable results opposite to the up-and-down method. The latest overstates the results for mineral oil impregnated pressboard and understates for natural ester impregnated pressboard when juxtaposing them with the rest of the methods applied. In addition, there is lack of possibility to assess the withstand voltage for the up-and-down method directly from the vector of random variable. It is possible only as a result of a specially developed equation which always arouses doubt. From the methods applied it seems that the step method can be a great substitution for the series method as intuitive, fast in application and limiting the number of samples in solid insulation material testing.
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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Klarecki
1 2
Paweł Rózga
1
Filip Stuchała
1

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Stefanowskiego 18/22, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
  2. Lodz University of Technology, Interdisciplinary Doctoral School, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
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Abstract

Eye tracking systems are mostly video-based methods which require significant computation to achieve good accuracy. An alternative method with comparable accuracy but less computational expense is 2D microelectromechanical (MEMS) mirror scanning. However, this technology is relatively new and there are not many publications on it. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual parameters of system components can affect the accuracy of pupil position estimation. The study was conducted based on a virtual simulator. It was shown that the optimal detector field of view (FOV) depends on the frequency ratio of the MEMS mirror axis. For a value of 1:13, the smallest errors were at 0.°, 1.65°, 2.3°, and 2.95°. The error for the impact of the signal sampling rate above 3 kHz stabilizes at 0.065° and no longer changes its value regardless of increasing the number of samples. The error for the frequency ratio of the MEMS mirror axis increases linearly in the range of 0.065°–0.1°up to the ratio of 1:230. Above this there is a sudden increase to the average value of 0.3°. The conducted research provides guidance in the selection of parameters for the construction of eye tracking MEMS mirror-based systems.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Mateusz Pomianek
1
Marek Piszczek
1
Marcin Maciejewski
1

  1. Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, 2 Kaliskiego St., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The paper covers some measurement aspects of transport of electrons through metals and semiconductors in magnetic field – magnetotransport – allowing for the determination of electrical parameters characteristic of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TI) (i.e. those that behave like an insulator inside their volume and have a conductive layer on their surface). A characteristic feature of the 3D TI is also a lack of differences between the chemical composition of the conductive surface and the interior of the material tested and the fact that the electron states for its surface conductivity are topologically protected. In particular, the methods of generating strong magnetic fields, obtaining low temperatures, creating electrical contacts with appropriate geometry were presented, and the measurement methods were reviewed. In addition, the results of magnetotransport measurements obtained for two volumetric samples based on the HgCdTe compound grown with the molecular beam epitaxy method are presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Śliż
1
Iwona Sankowska
2
Ewa Bobko
1
Eugeniusz Szeregij
1
Jakub Grendysa
1
Grzegorz Tomaka
1
Dariusz Żak
1
Dariusz Płoch
1
ORCID: ORCID
Agata Jasik
2

  1. University of Rzeszow, College of Natural Sciences, Institute of Physics, 1 Pigonia St., Rzeszow 35-959, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Microelectronics and Photonics, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Waviness is a parameter used to complete information on the machined surface state. There is little scientific and technical information on the influence exerted by the cutting conditions and the workpiece material hardness on the values of some parameters that define the waviness of milled surface. No works have been identified to present such information for dry high-speed face milling applied to hard steel workpieces. A factorial experiment with four independent variables at three variation levels was planned to model the influence of milling speed, feed, cutting depth, and steel hardness on the total heights of the profile and surface waviness for dry high-speed face milling. Mathematical processing of experimental results was used to identify the power type function and empirical mathematical models. These models highlight the direction of variation and the intensity of influence exerted by the considered input factors on the values of two waviness parameters in the case of dry high-speed face milling of samples made of four hard steels. It has been observed that the increase in steel hardness increases the total heights of the profile and surface waviness. In the case of two types of steel, a good correlation was identified between the values of the total profile waviness height and the total surface waviness height, respectively, using the Pearson correlation coefficient.
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Authors and Affiliations

Irina Beşliu-Băncescu
1
Laurenţiu Slătineanu
2
Margareta Coteaţă
2

  1. Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Department of Mechanics and Technology, Universitatii Street, 13, 720229 Suceava, Romania
  2. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Department of Machine Manufacturing Technology, D. Mangeron Blvd, 59A, 700050 Iasi, Romania
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Abstract

The degradation of photovoltaic modules and their subsequent loss of performance has a serious impact on the total energy generation potential. The lack of real-time information on the output power leads to additional losses since the panels may not be operating at their optimal point. To understand the behaviour, numerically simulate the characteristics and identify the optimal operating point of a photovoltaic cell, the parameters of an equivalent electrical circuit must first be identified. The aim of this work is to develop a total least-squares based algorithm which can identify those parameters from the output voltage and current measurements, taking into consideration the uncertainties on both measured quantities. This work presents a comparative study of the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Total Least Squares (TLS) approaches to the estimation of the parameters of a photovoltaic cell.
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Authors and Affiliations

Oumaima Mesbahi
1 2
Mouhaydine Tlemçani
1 2
Fernando M. Janeiro
1 2 3
Abdeloawahed Hajjaji
4
Khalid Kandoussi
4

  1. University of Évora, Department of Mechatronics, R. Romão Ramalho 59, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal
  2. Instrumentation and Control Laboratory, Institute of Earth Sciences, Évora, Portugal
  3. Instituto de Telecomunicações, Lisbon, Portugal
  4. University of Chouaib Doukkali, Energy Engineering Laboratory, National School of Applied Sciences, El Jadida, Morocco
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Abstract

Noise is a fundamental metrological characteristic of the instrument in surface topography measurement. Therefore, measurement noise should be thoroughly studied in practical measurement to understand instrument performance and optimize measurement strategy. This paper investigates the measurement noise at different measurement settings using structured illumination microscopy. The investigation shows that the measurement noise may scatter significantly among different measurement settings. Eliminating sample tilt, selecting low vertical scanning interval and high exposure time is helpful to reduce the measurement noise. In order to estimate the influence of noise on the measurement, an approach based on metrological characteristics is proposed. The paper provides a practical guide to understanding measurement noise in a wide range of applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhen Li
1
Sophie Gröger
1

  1. Chemnitz University of Technology, Department of Production Measuring Technology, Reichenhainer Straße 70, 09126 Chemnitz, Germany
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Abstract

The determination of precise emitter location is a very important task in electronic intelligence systems. Its basic requirements include the detection of the emission of electromagnetic sources (emitters), measurement of signal parameters, determining the direction of emitters, signal analysis, and the recognition and identification of their sources. The article presents a new approach and algorithm for calculating the location of electromagnetic emission sources (radars) in a plane based on the bearings in the radio-electronic reconnaissance system. The main assumptions of this method are presented and described i.e. how the final mathematical formulas for calculating the emitter location were determined for any number of direction finders (DFs). As there is an unknown distance from the emitter to the DFs then in the final formulas it is stated how this distance should be calculated in the first iteration. Numerical simulation in MATLAB showed a quick convergence of the proposed algorithm to the fixed value in the fourth/fifth iteration with an accuracy less than 0.1 meter. The computed emitter location converges to the fixed value regardless of the choice of the starting point. It has also been shown that to precisely calculate the emitter position, at least a dozen or so bearings from each DFs should be measured. The obtained simulation results show that the precise emitter location depends on the number of DFs, the distances between the localized emitter and DFs, their mutual deployment, and bearing errors. The research results presented in the article show the usefulness of the tested method for the location of objects in a specific area of interest. The results of simulation calculations can be directly used in radio-electronic reconnaissance systems to select the place of DFs deployment to reduce the emitter location errors in the entire reconnaissance area.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Matuszewski
1
Tomasz Kraszewski
1

  1. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Institute of Radioelectronics, gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00–908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents an analysis and practical study of the temperature and pressure influence on a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide in human breath. This sensor is used for monitoring patients’ carbon dioxide (CO2) in the exhaled air. High precision and accuracy of CO2 concentration measurements are essential in air sampling systems for breath analysers. They, however, require an analysis of the influence of the human exhaled air pressure and temperature on the NDIR CO2 sensor. Therefore, analyses of the changes in concentration were carried out at a pressure from 986 mbar to 1027 mbar and a temperature from 20°C to 36°C. Finally, corresponding correction coefficients were determined which allow to reduce the relative uncertainty of CO2 sensor measurements results from 19% to below 5%.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Prokopiuk
1
Zbigniew Bielecki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jacek Wojtas
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, 00-908 Warsaw, 2 Gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego St.
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Abstract

The rapidly developing measurement techniques and emerging new physical methods are frequently used in otolaryngological diagnostics. A wide range of applied diagnostic methods constituted the basis for the review study aimed at presenting selected modern diagnostic methods and achieved diagnostic results to a wider group of users. In this part, the methods based on measuring the respiratory parameters of patients were analysed. Respiration is the most important and necessary action to support life and its effective duration. It is an actual gas exchange in the respiratory system consisting of removing CO2 and supplying O2. Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli, and an efficient respiratory tract allows for effective ventilation. The disruption in the work of the respiratory system leads to measurable disturbances in blood saturation and, consequently, hypoxia. Frequent, even short-term, recurrent hypoxia in any part of the body leads to multiple complications. This process is largely related to its duration and the processes that accompany it. The causes of hypoxia resulting from impaired patency of the respiratory tract and/or the absence of neuronal respiratory drive can be divided into the following groups depending on the cause: peripheral, central and/or of mixed origin. Causes of the peripheral form of these disorders are largely due to the impaired patency of the upper and/or lower respiratory tract. Therefore, early diagnosis and location of these disorders can be considered reversible and not a cause of complications. Slow, gradually increasing obstruction of the upper respiratory tract (URT) is not noticeable and becomes a slow killer. Hypoxic individuals in a large percentage of cases have a shorter life expectancy and, above all, deal with the consequences of hypoxia much sooner.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Kukwa
1
Andrzej Zając
2
Robert Barański
3
Szymon Nitkiewicz
4 5
Wojciech Kukwa
6
Edyta Zomkowska
7
Adam Rybak
8

  1. University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Department and Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases, Collegium Medicum, Warszawska St. 30, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
  2. Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Institute of Optoelectronics, Kaliskiego St., 2, 00-908, Warsaw, Poland
  3. AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Department of Mechanics and Vibroacoustics, Mickiewicza St. 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  4. University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Technical Science, Oczapowskiego St. 2, Olsztyn, Poland
  5. University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Oczapowskiego St. 2, Olsztyn, Poland
  6. Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Zwirki i Wigury St. 61, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
  7. University Hospital in Olsztyn, Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Warszawska St. 30,10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
  8. LABSOFT Sp. z o. o., Puławska St. 469, 02-844 Warsaw, Poland

Instructions for authors



Sample article with Author guidelines



Author guidelines



Types of contributions

Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:

• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).


Manuscript preparation

General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).

The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.


Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.


Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).


References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.


Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220




References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).


Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.


Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.


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