Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2012 | vol. 38 | No 4

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This study presents the results of tests conducted in 2009 and 2010 on experimental sites installed on the roof of the Science and Education Building of the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The aim of the analysis was to determine the retention capacity of green roofs and the runoff delays and peak runoff reduction during rainfall recorded in Wroclaw conditions.

The research shows that green roofs allow to reduce the volume of runoff stormwater in comparison to conventional roofs, that they delay the runoff in time and influence the reduction of the maximum runoff intensity, and thus may limit the impact of stormwater on the stormwater drainage and combined sewage systems.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Burszta-Adamiak
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The report presents the results of selected heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb) removal from industrial wastewater sludge collected from metallurgy industry. As washing solutions two chelating agents were used: EDTA and citric acid. The study was focused on 0.000 (deionized water), 0.010, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100 M and 0.000, 0.050, 0.100, 0.500, 1.000 M, EDTA and citric acid solutions, respectively.

Efficiency of EDTA and citric acid solutions for metal removal was studied by extraction of sludge samples with chelators. Chemical extraction of selected metals was effective for both types of solution. Optimal concentration of EDTA was 0.100M for Zn, Ni and Cd, 0.075 M for Cu and Pb. Optimal concentration of citric acid was 0.500 M for all analyzed metals

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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Karwowska
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The work presents examination results of the common determination of PAHs and PCBs in industrial sludge and supernatants. Sewage sludge was taken from the wastewater treatment plant, and supernatants were obtained by their centrifuging. The prepared samples of sewage sludge and supernatants were subjected to extraction with applying the mixture of organic solvents. Cyclohexane and dichloromethane were used for constant samples, and methanol, cyclohexane and dichloromethane - for liquid. Extracts, after separation from samples of sewage sludge and supernatants, were cleared on the silica gel in vacuum conditions and concentrated in the stream of nitrogen. In such prepared extracts there was conducted the qualitative-quantitative analysis of 16 PAHs using the GC-MS system. Next, the samples were evaporated and poured with water and methanol until the clear solution was obtained. Extracts were cleared on octadecyl C18 columns, and then concentrated in the nitrogen stream. In these extracts PCBs was also determined with the application of the gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer. The range of concentrations 16 PAHs in sewage sludge equalled 10-16 mg/kgd.w. Summary average concentration 16 PAHs in supernatants was reached 17 μg/L. Average recovery of PAHs introduced to sewage sludge in the form of reference mixture was 78% (with consideration of naphthalene). In the case of supernatants, the average value of recovery reached 60%. Average PCBs concentration in supernatants equalled 10 ng/L. For sewage sludge the sum of marked PCBs was an average 1.23 μg/kgd.w.. In the case of particular PCBs the percentage recovery of the reference mixture for supernatants was 86%, while for sewage sludge it was 55%.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bartłomiej Macherzyński
Anna Nowacka
Maria Włodarczyk-Makuła
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This paper presents the results of study on heavy metals in soil and in herbaceous plants in selected pine forests in Słowiński National Park. The heavy metals, such as Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe were studied. Concentrations of zinc in tested soil are strongly and very strongly related to manganese and copper content (r = 0.57 do r = 0.98, p < 0.05). Moreover, the soil moistening has vital impact on copper content in the plants of the ground cover. It was also found that moss in comparison to other forest plants captures higher volume of zinc and copper. The content of the above mentioned metals in the plants of dry coniferous forests (Bs), fresh coniferous forests (Bśw) and humid coniferous forests (Bw) of the ground cover constitute the following decreasing series: Mn(438.1) > Fe(98.6) > Zn(35.2) > Cu(3.5).

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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Parzych
Zbigniew Sobisz
Jan Trojanowski
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The paper presents the results of studies on the changes in the PAHs concentration during pre-filtration and ultrafiltration (UF) processes. In the study, biologically treated wastewater (after denitrification and nitrification processes), discharged from the biological treatment plant and used in coke plant, was used. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in order to qualify and quantify the PAHs. Sixteen PAHs listed by EPA were determined. The wastewater samples were collected three fold and initially characterized for the concentration of nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, COD, TOC and pH. In the first step, wastewater was filtrated on the sand bed. Total concentration of 16 PAHs in the treated wastewater before initial filtration was in the range of 44.8‒53.5 mg/L. During the process the decrease in the concentration of the most studied hydrocarbons was observed. Concentration of PAHs after initial filtration ranged from 21.9 to 38.3 μg/L. After the initial filtration process the wastewater flew to the ultrafiltration module and then was separated on the membrane (type ZW-10). The total concentration of 16 PAHs in the process of ultrafiltration was in the range of 8.9‒19.3 mg/L. The efficiency of removal of PAHs from coke wastewater in the process of ultrafiltration equaled 66.6%. Taking into account the initial filtration, the total degree of removal of PAHs reached 85%. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using the ultrafiltration process with the initial filtration as additional process in the coke wastewater treatment.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marzena Smol
Maria Włodarczyk-Makuła
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The existence of extensive records for the impact of night sky brightness on the animals’ behavior in their natural environment shows the need to investigate the level of artificially induced night sky glow (light pollution) in the protected areas.

The results of multi-night sky brightness measurements carried out at the selected sites in Polish mountain areas under various atmospheric conditions are presented. Conducted measurements show a strong impact of the artificial sky glow on the night sky brightness, which is the essence of light pollution. The influence of both distant urban centers, as well as local tourist resorts on the size of studied phenomenon in the mountain areas, which causes both ecological and touristic degradation of these areas was stated. In a few studied areas the level of night sky brightness greatly exceeds the natural one and is comparable to such levels measured inside the cities. It was found that only the southern part of the Polish Carpathians can be considered an area free of light pollution.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wiesław Kaszowski
Tomasz Ściężor
Marek Kubala
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One of the major tasks of municipal waste management in European Union countries is the systematic reduction of waste that is removed and transported to landfills. This refers particularly to biodegradable waste. One of the methods employed to decrease waste amount is Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) of the waste, before it is stored.

The article presents characteristics of MSW and biologically pre-treated municipal solid waste, organic carbon loads emitted in biogas and leachate during waste deposition in a landfill. Its decomposition rate constants were determined on the basis of modified Zacharof and Butler’s stochastic model. The values of decomposition rate constants determined for MSW had similar change trends to those presented in the literature: the hydrolysis constant had the lowest value (2.6 × 10-5 d-1), the highest acid phase constant (4.1 × 10-4 d-1), while the methane phase constant - 2.2 × 10-4 d-1. The PMSW decomposition rate constants in each anaerobic waste degradation phase had similar change trends, though their values were higher, by 21, 11 and 19%, respectively.

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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz
Sylwia Myszograj
Andrzej Jędrczak
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Labile fractions of organic matter can rapidly respond to changes in soil and they have been suggested as sensitive indicators of soil organic matter. Two labile fractions of organic carbon in the soils amended with fresh municipal sewage sludge in two rates (equivalent of 60 kg P ha-1 and 120 kg P ha-1) were studied. Soils under studies were overgrown with Salix in Germany, Estonia and Poland. In Polish soils application of sewage sludge increased the content of both labile organic carbon fractions (KMnO4-C and HWC) for a period of one year. Estonian soils were stable and no distinct changes in labile organic carbon fractions occurred.

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Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Kalisz
Andrzej Klasa
Andrzej Lachacz
Roman Głażewski
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The aim of the conducted research was to determine the possibilities of using the biomass of macroalgae obtained from Puck Bay during May-September season in biogas production process. Model respirometry chambers were used to determine the amount of produced biogas and examine its quality composition. Depending on the month in which the algal biomass was obtained, the experiments were divided into five stages. In each stage, the effectiveness of the biogas production process was tested for the applied loads in model fermentation chambers in the range from 1.0 kg DOM/m3 · d to 3.0 kg DOM/m3 · d. During the experiments it was found that the efficiency of biogas production varied from 205 dm3/kg DOM to 407 dm3/kg DOM depending on the month of the vegetation season and the applied organic matter load in the chamber. Methane content was very high and ranged from 63% to 74%.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Dębowski
Anna Grala
Marcin Zieliński
Magda Dudek
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Sludge from cardboard mill is most commonly landfilled, but it could also be recycled on-site into production or reused in some other way. In this study the use of sludge from cardboard mill as stabilizing agent in the stabilization treatment of cadmium polluted sediment was examined. The effectiveness of treatment and long-term leaching behavior of cadmium was evaluated by determining the cumulative percentage of cadmium leached, diffusion coefficients (De) and by applying different leaching tests (semi-dynamic test, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, waste extraction test). In order to simulate the “worst case” leaching conditions, the semi-dynamic leaching test was modified using 0.014 M acetic acid (pH = 3.25) and humic acids solution (20 mg l-1 TOC) as leachants instead of deionized water. A diffusion-based model was used to elucidate the controlling leaching mechanisms. Applied treatment was effective in immobilizing cadmium irrespective of high availability in the untreated sample. The controlling leaching mechanism appeared to be diffusion, which indicates that a slow leaching of cadmium could be expected when the cardboard mill sludge as stabilization agent is applied.

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Authors and Affiliations

Milena Becelic
Miljana Prica
Milena Dalmacija
Bozo Dalmacija
Vesna Pesic
Dejan Krcmar
Rastko Milosevic

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

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Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

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