Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2010 | vol. 36 | No 1

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


At present. when high particulate matter (PM) concentrations in ambient air cause thousands o Ipremature deaths in Europe and global climate change is becoming the most critical issue in environmental protection, the state-of-the-science air quality and climate models constitute an essential research as well as decision support tools. Recently the great progress has been achieved in this research area. The present paper presents the goals and tools lor Air Quality (AQ) Modeling, and gives overview of' current challenges. including the meteurological. chemistry and climate modeling. The main emphasis is given to the regulatory and the Eulerian grid models. the latter arc currently operating as so called off-line or on-line modeling systems. The issues conncctccl with model implementation and validation is presented as well. finally, the conclusions arc drawn and rccornmcndations lor further development and integration ofAQ and climate modeling in Poland arc presented.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Paper discusses integrated assessment methodology of air pollution and greenhouse gases mitigation. RAINS/CiAINS model developed at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is described. Its use in policy-relevant analysis is discussed with particular locus on studies for the development of policies of the European Union and under the lJN/ECF: Convention on Long-Range Transhoundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Importance of interactions and synergies het ween air pollution and greenhouse gases policies is stressed. Integrated assessment has proven to be an important tool for preparation of air pollution control legislation in Eurore. Although most prominent applications of integrated assessment referred to international policies, recently these methods have been applied in several national studies lor in-depth analyses at subnational regional level. It is advisable to further disseminate applications of the methodology and software tools lor regional assessment.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Cofała
Markus Amann
Willem Asman
Imrich Bertok
Chris Heyes
Lena Hoglund-Isaksson
Zbigniew Klimont
Wolfgang Schopp
Fabian Wagner
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The paper presents the results or the integrated assessment or environmental and human health impacts or emissions released from different sectors in Poland. The analysis was performed with the use or the curelian emissions transport model POLAIR 31) and the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation model RAINS. The models arc briefly described. At present, this hybrid system can operate in a simulation mode and enables estimation or the emission and concentration/deposition levels or main air pollutants, emission control costs, environmental impacts and external costs associated with different energy scenarios. Emission levels or main air pollutants in 2005, 20 I O and 2020 arc presented lor the selected energy scenario. Associated external costs and impacts on acidification have been estimated.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Artur Wyrwa
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The main source of spatial information on concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Poland is the continental scale EMEP model with 50 km x 50 km grid. The coarse resolution of the EMEP model may be insufficient for regional scale studies. A new proposal is the application of the national scale atmospheric transport model FRAME (Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange), originally developed for the United Kingdom. The model works with 5 km x 5 km spatial resolution and the air column is divided into 33 layers. FRAME was used here to assess the spatial patterns of yearly averaged air concentrations, and wet and dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the area of Poland. This study presents preliminary results of the modeling of the yearly average concentrations as well as dry and wet depositions of SO,, NO, and NH, for Poland. FRAME results were compared with available measurements from the monitoring sites and national deposition budget with the EMEP and IMGW estimates. The results show close agreement with the measured concentrations expressed by determination coefficient close to O. 7 for both SO, and NO . The dry and wet deposition budgets for FRAME are also in close agreement with the EMEP and GIOŚ estimates. The FRAME model, despite its relatively simple meteorological parameterizations, is well suited to calculate the spatial pattern of annual average concentration and yearly deposition of atmospheric pollutants which was earlier presented for the UK and was shown in this paper for Poland. The model can also be used to analyze the impact of individual point sources or different emission sectors on spatial pattern of air concentration and deposition as well as testing the changes in deposition resulting from future emissions reduction scenarios.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Kryza
Marek Błaś
Anthony J. Dore
Mieczysław Sobik
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The accession of Poland to the European Union involved the need or regional air quality assessment and brought radical change in requirements towards the sottware tools used for assessment purposes. According to Polish law, a zone is an agglomeration o rover 250 000 inhabitants, or a poviat (second level or local government administration in Poland), or a group of poviats, and assessment should consider both global and regional inllow or pollutants as well as the impact of local emission sources and significant sources in a voivodeship. These requirements have imposed a model range of over 250 km. Following an analysis or different models operating all over the world, the CALPUFF model together with the CALMET meteorological processor was chosen to be implemented in air quality assessment systems in Polish zones. This paper presents the results or model calculations performed within the air quality assessment in Mazowieckie voivodeship as well as compares them with the measurements obtained at automatic air monitoring stations.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Trapp
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


In this article the capabilities or mathematical heavy gas atmospheric dispersion models to describe the dispersion or heavy gases in complex and obstructed terrain arc presented. The models have been entegorizcd into three main classes: phenomenological (empirical) models. intermediate (engineering) models and computational fluid dynamic (research) models. Each group or models is discussed separately. The general features or the models arc discussed briefly, Examples of the heavy gas atmospheric dispersion models carable to treat the influence or non-Ilut and obstructed terrain on the heavy gas dispersion result from the work carried out in the European Union and in the US. No model simulating the heavy gas atmospheric dispersion over complex or obstructed terrain has been yet developed in Poland. The need lor future work on the effects of complex and obstructed terrain on the heavy gas atmospheric dispersion is expressed. future research in the area should include both experimental and modeling work. In the context of this raper future modeling work is worth considering in more detail. il seems that all the approaches 10 describe the hcavv gas atmospheric dispersion over complex and obstructed terrain arc worth further aucntion. This opinion is supported by the fact that these approaches arc used in different types of heavy gas dispersion models. which in turn differ in applications. The simpler methods arc introduced to the simpler heavy gas atmospheric dispersion models applied mainly in the routine calculations. The advanced techniques capable to describe the: now near complicated geometrics are used in the sophisticated models applied mainly as a research tools.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Maria T. Markiewicz
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Fine particulate matter ( PM) air pollution is one of the main environmental health problems in developed countries. According to modeling estimates the PM,, concentrations in Poland arc among the highest in Europe. In this article we focus on exposure assessment and estimation of adverse health effects due to PM, air pollution. This art i ck consists of two parts. The first part, we discuss the main methods used to estimate emission-exposure relationships and adverse health effects due to PM, air pollution. In the second part, we present an assessment framwork for Poland. We illustrate this framework by estimating the premature deaths and change in life expectancy in Poland caused by anthropogenic. primary PM,, emissions from different European countries, and, in proportion. the premature deaths in different European countries caused by primary PM,, emissions from Poland. The PM,, emissions were evaluated using the inventory of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The emission-exposure relationships were based on the previously published study and the exposure-response functions for PM,, air pollution were estimated in expert elicitation study performed lor six European experts on air pollution health effects. Based on the assessment. the anthropogenic primary PM, from the whole or Europe is estimated to cause several thousands of premature deaths in Poland, annually. These premature deaths arc both due to PM, emissions from Poland and transportation of PM,, from other European countries. both of these in almost equal parts. The framework presented in this article will be developed in the near future to a full scale integrated assessment. that takes into account both gaseous and PM air pollution.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Marko Tainio
Jaakko Kukkonen
Zbigniew Nahorski
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


A mass balance model lo calculate critical loads of' airborne acidity and cutrophication to forest ecosystems has been computerized. The SONOX soliware developed at the Institute of Environmental Protection replicates the sequence of' events on the path from sulfur and nitrogen emission through their deposition and next overlaying it on critical loads values lo identify the extent and areas of critical loads cxcccdance. To support decision making a converse direction is offered to assess the necessary emission reductions lo meet assumed environmental goals by eliminating or suitably abating the critical loads cxcccdance. This software originally developed and applied to support the Polish contribution lo the negotiations of the Oslo and Gothenburg Protocols or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution was thereafter used to assess the capacity of achieving the, interim environmental quality targets ofthe NEC Directive in Poland, to support the development of air protection programs lor administrative units exposed to transboundary lluxcs and other decision making purposes.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Mill
Adrian Schlama
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The paper deals with recent developments in the fields of applied mathematics and operational research triggered by the needs of effective support of environmental policy-making processes that require interdisciplinary science-based advice. Mathematical models developed for this purpose demand new modeling paradigms for an adequate integration of pertinent knowledge. and creation of knowledge needed for rational decision-making. The article first summarizes the model-based support for problem solving from the point of view of actual decision-makers. Next, il discusses the model representation of the knowledge pertinent lo a given decision-making problem, and the recently developed modeling technology supporting the whole process of modeling complex problems. The last parł deals with novel methods and tools for integrated management of risks related to natural catastrophes. The presented methodology is illustrated by its application lo actual environmental policy-making support.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Marek Makowski
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The quantitative evaluation of environmental impact of emission sources is an important step of integrated modeling and the air quality decision support. The problem is especially difficult in the case of a complex, multi-source emission field. The approach discussed in the paper is based on the forecasts of the Eulerian type models of air pollution transport. The aim is to get a quantitative assessment of the contribution of the selected sources, according to the specified, environmental objective function. The approach utilizes the optimal control technique for distributed parameter systems. The adjoint equation, related to the main transport equation of the forecasting model, is applied to calculate the sensitivity of the cost function to the emission intensity of the specified sources. An example implementation of a regional scale, multi-layer dynamic model of SO, transport is discussed as the main forecasting tool. The test computations have been performed for a set of the -major power plants in a selected industrial region of Poland.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Holnicki

Instructions for authors

Archives of Environmental Protection
Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
– Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;
– Wastewater treatment and utilization;
– Waste management;
– Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;
– Soil protection and remediation;
– Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;
– Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;
– Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to:

Preparation of the manuscript
The following are the requirements for manuscripts submitted for publication:
• The manuscript (with illustrations, tables, abstract and references) should not exceed 20 pages. In case the manuscript exceeds the required number of pages, we suggest contacting the Editor.
• The manuscript should be written in good English.
• The manuscript ought to be submitted in doc or docx format in three files:
– text.doc – file containing the entire text, without title, keywords, authors names and affiliations, and without tables and figures;
– figures.doc – file containing illustrations with legends;
– tables.doc – file containing tables with legends;
• The text should be prepared in A4 format, 2.5 cm margins, 1.5 spaced, preferably using Time New Roman font, 12 point. Thetext should be divided into sections and subsections according to general rules of manuscript editing. The proposed place of tables and figures insertion should be marked in the text.
• Legends in the figures should be concise and legible, using a proper font size so as to maintain their legibility after decreasing the font size. Please avoid using descriptions in figures, these should be used in legends or in the text of the article. Figures should be placed without the box. Legends should be placed under the figure and also without box.
• Tables should always be divided into columns. When there are many results presented in the table it should also be divided into lines.
• References should be cited in the text of an article by providing the name and publication year in brackets, e.g. (Nowak 2019). When a cited paper has two authors, both surnames connected with the word “and” should be provided, e.g. (Nowak and Kowalski 2019). When a cited paper has more than two author, surname of its first author, abbreviation ‘et al.’ and publication year should be provided, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019). When there are more than two publications cited in one place they should be divided with a coma, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019, Nowak 2019, Nowak and Kowalski 2019). Internet sources should be cited like other texts – providing the name and publication year in brackets.
• The Authors should avoid extensive citations. The number of literature references must not exceed 30 including a maximum of 6 own papers. Only in review articles the number of literature references can exceed 30.
• References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title of the article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages, DOI.
For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

If the article has been assigned DOI, it should be provided and linked with the website on which it is made available.

2. Book:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title, Publisher, Place and publishing year.
For example:

Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Studies, Zabrze 2019.

3. Edited book:

Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and
initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.
For example:

Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:
Surnames and initials or the name of the institution which published the text. (publication year). Title, (website address (accessed on)).
For example:

Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, ( (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

6. Materials published in language other than English:
Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.
For example:

Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

Submission of the manuscript
By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article.
The article is freely available and distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the article is properly cited, is not used for commercial purposes and no modification or adaptation are made.

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made

The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at Authors are asked to propose at least 4 potential reviewers, including 2 from Poland, together with their e-mail addresses. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Review Process
All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline.
Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.
Reviewers have access to PUBLONS platform which integrates into Bentus Editorial System and enables adding reviews to their personal profile.
After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and – if both reviews are positive – asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript

The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction
All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or – in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.
After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

Article publication charges
The publication fee of an article in the Journal is:
25 EUR/100 zł per page (black and white or in gray scale),
35 EUR/130 zł per page (color).

Payments in Polish zlotys
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Payments in Euros
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001
IBAN: PL 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice.

Additional info

Abstracting & Indexing

Archives of Environmental Protection is covered by the following services:

AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library)



Baidu Scholar


CABI (over 50 subsections)

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - CAplus

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - SciFinder

CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure)



DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals)

EBSCO (relevant databases)

EBSCO Discovery Service

Engineering Village

FSTA - Food Science & Technology Abstracts

Genamics JournalSeek



Google Scholar

Index Copernicus


Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)


Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition


KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders)

Microsoft Academic

Naviga (Softweco)

Primo Central (ExLibris)

ProQuest (relevant databases)






Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)


TEMA Technik und Management

Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb

WanFang Data

Web of Science - Biological Abstracts

Web of Science - BIOSIS Previews

Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded

WorldCat (OCLC)

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more