Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection

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Archives of Environmental Protection | 2021 | vol. 47 | No 4

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Abstract

In this study, genotoxic potential of industrial waste water (IWW) samples was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The root tips were treated with different IWW samples (A, B and C) for 48 hours. The effects of IWW oncytological effects were determined. It was found that all IWW samples significantly increased the percentage of total abnormality. Mitotic chromosomal abnormalities such as irregular metaphase, stickiness, c-mitosis, micronucleus,vagrant chromosomes and bridges were determined. Furthermore, a significant reduction for the mitotic index that isindicative of cellular toxicity was observed in root tips cells, which were treated with IWW samples. A. cepa assaycan be used as useful tool for the detection of genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of IWWs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pinar Goc Rasgele
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Duzce University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Duzce, Turkey
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Abstract

The profile of microbial diversity in a NABR digesting RPMW was investigated using phylogeneticanalysis of partial 16S rRNA sequences by a neighbor-joining-tree, supported by microbial morphology analysis by SEM. The results showed that microorganism inside NABR consisted of dominant Bacillus (25 strains) and Bacterium (1 strain) which were isolated from the settled sludge at the bottom of the reactor, whilst Bacillus (2 strains), Pseudomonas (2 strain) and Chryseobacterium (2 strain) were isolated from the biofilm formed on the packing material. It revealed that the microbial community strains, function, and structure changed simultaneously throughout the reactor system. The microscopic results showed rich biofacies, while the dominant microorganisms have various morphologies in every compartment of the system. It consisted of a long rod-shaped and filamentous bacterium composed majorly of bacilli of different sizes. Although the study successfully analyzed the microbial diversity and morphology in the system, the microbial communities reported in this study were different from other similar studies. This may be caused by the application of a culture-based technique that usually provides limited information due to the number of barely cultivated or uncultured strains
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Authors and Affiliations

Haider M. Zwain
1
ORCID: ORCID
Farah A. Al-Marzook
2
Basim K. Nile
3
Mohammed Ali Jeddoa Zuhair
2
Aqeel H. Atallah
2
Irvan Dahlan
4 5
Hammed Hassan Waqed
3

  1. College of Water Resources Engineering, Al-Qasim Green University, 51013 Al-Qasim Province, Babylon, Iraq
  2. College of Medical and Health Technologies, Al-Zahraa University for Women, Karbala 56100, Iraq
  3. College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Karbala 56100, Iraq
  4. School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan,14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
  5. Solid Waste Management Cluster, Science and Engineering Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia,Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
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Abstract

Process baths used for electropolishing and pickling of stainless steel have become increasingly contaminated with heavy metal ions over time. There is still lack of research on the neutralization of this type of technological wastewater with high concentrations of metal ions and containing complexing compounds, which significantly hinders their effective treatment. The aim of this paper is to study how the selected methods of heavy metals removal will affect the quality of the treated, industrial post-galvanic sewage from pickling and electropolishing of chromium-nickel steel on a laboratory and technical scale. The research used sodium sulphide or a decomplexing agent based on organic sulphur to neutralize wastewater containing triethanolamine or glycerol. Treatment of electropolishing wastewater poses a challenge. Nevertheless, wastewater with glycerol is easier to neutralize than those containing triethanolamine. In the industrial scale the use of a decomplexing agent is necessary to achieve the required nickel values in the wastewater after treatment below 1 ppm. Even in the case of high concentrations of nickel ions in raw wastewater, the neutralization process of the wastewater originating only from pickling alone was effective. The search for effective methods of neutralization of mixed wastewater is especially important in industrial conditions, where it is not always possible to completely separate these two types of sewage. The paper also presents the results of the composition of post-neutralization sludge, which may be useful in planning further management and disposal of this type of waste.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Lochyński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Wiercik
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sylwia Charazińska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Maciej Ostrowski
1

  1. Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Poland
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Abstract

Surface wastewater pollution due to accidental runoff or release of oil or its products is a longstanding and common environmental problem. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of concentrations of oil products (diesel) and suspended solids, the sorbent type, the water flow rate and the interfering factors (chlorides) on the dynamic sorption of diesel and to test regeneration of polypropylene after its use for sorption. The sorbents used for study included common wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), polypropylene and sorbents modified with hydrogen peroxide solution. Standard methods were used for the determination of the investigated parameters and an in-house procedure employing a gas chromatograph was used for the determination of diesel concentration. The following factors that impact the sorption of diesel were investigated during the study: diesel concentration, concentration of suspended solids; type of sorbent (common wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), wheat straw modified with hydrogen peroxide, and polypropylene), water flow rate; and influence of the interfering factors (chlorides). Filtration speed in the range of investigated speeds does not affect the efficiency of diesel removal. Removal efficiency does not depend on the concentration of diesel before the sorbent reaches its maximum sorption capacity. Filling containing 50% of polypropylene and 50% of wheat straw was used for the study. It was found that polypropylene and wheat straw do not remove chlorides and suspended solids from solution. The study found that the solution of hydrogen peroxide boosts the hydrophobic properties of common wheat straw, but does not affect the sorption of diesel. The recommended number of regenerations of polypropylene should be limited to two.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dainius Paliulis
1

  1. Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania
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Abstract

The research covered two lakes: Karczemne and Domowe Małe, which served as receivers for rainwater and municipal or industrial sewage. The sediment cores were obtained using a Kajak tube sampler. Analyses of HM, PAH and PCB were done by the AAS, ICP-AES and GC MS methods. OM, SiO2, TH, Ca, Mg, CO2, Fe, Al, Mn, TN and TP were measured. The research showed that the sediments of Lake Karczemne, into which the untreated municipal sewage was discharged, are characterized by a high content of P. It was found that the sediments accumulate toxins, OM and pollutants characteristic for various industries. Karczemne Lake which collected municipal and industrial wastewater, contained a high content of Pb, Cu and PAH in the sediments, and Domowe Małe Lake, receiving stormwater, contained high concentrations of PAH. Research has shown that one of the most important tools for selecting an appropriate method of lake restoration is the analysis of the spatial distribution of pollutants in the bottom sediments. Thanks to such an analysis of the composition of the bottom sediments and the correlation between the components of the sediments and their sorption properties, the restoration of the Karczemne Lake using the Ripl method was planned and the possibility of restoration of the Domowe Małe Lake in this way was eliminated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jolanta Katarzyna Grochowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Renata Tandyrak
1
Renata Augustyniak
1
Michał Łopata
1
Dariusz Popielarczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Templin
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

The area of the Coastal Landscape Park (CLP) due to its location is extremely attractive touristi carea. In the summer season, a significant increase in population density is observed, which influences surface water quality. Large numbers of tourists generate an increased amount of municipal wastewater, being treated in local treatment plants and discharged into rivers and streams. The paper presents preliminary research from summer 2016 on three watercourses ending in the Baltic Sea: Piaśnica, Karwianka and Czarna Wda rivers. It is a part of a long-term project conducted in CLP to assess surface waters quality. The scope of research included measurements of in situ parameters (temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen). Chemical Oxygen Demand was determined using a spectrophotometer. Ion chromatography was used to determine ions concentrations (including biogenic compounds). Sanitary state of watercourses was assessed based on fecal coliforms abundance, which number was determined by the cultivation method. The determination of microbiological parameters such as: prokaryotic cell abundance expressed as total cells number (TCN), prokaryotic cell biovolume expressed as average cell volume (ACV), the prokaryotic biomass (PB) and prokaryotic cell morphotype diversity was determined using epifluorescence microscopy method. Results showed that water quality of Piaśnica and Czarna Wda rivers were affected by discharged treated wastewater. In the case of Karwianka River, the main pollution source could be surface runoff from fields and unregulated sewage management in this area. The conducted research confirmed the urgent need for better protection of this area to conserve both its ecosystem and value for tourism.
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Authors and Affiliations

Emilia Bączkowska
1
Agnieszka Kalinowska
1
Oskar Ronda
2 3
Katarzyna Jankowska
1
Rafał Bray
1
Bartosz Płóciennik
4
Żaneta Polkowska
3 2

  1. Department of Water and Wastewater Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering,Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland
  2. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland
  3. EkoTech Center, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland
  4. Costal Landscape Park, Wladyslawowo, Poland
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Abstract

The development of civilization contributed to the exponential growth in the production of plastics. Policy of the, so-called, “European Green Deal” places particular emphasis on reducing the use of plastics through various mechanisms, including their reuse, recycling and, in particular, the development of new biodegradable and compostable plastics. In order to check if plastics are suitable for biodegradability and compostability they must undergo a series of tests in accordance with applicable standards. The biodegradation test procedures are very general and allow for the use of different temperatures of the biodegradation process in the test. The aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of temperature on the biodegradation process of selected packaging materials. The obtained results show a significant influence of the temperature of the biodegradation process of all 3 tested types of packaging materials: oxy-biodegradable, corn starch and paper. Statistically significant differences in the biodegradation rate of the tested packaging materials were demonstrated in as low as 40°C, despite the low intensity of the process. As the process temperature increased to 45 and 50°C, a statistically significant increase in CO2 productions was recorded. CO2 is produced by the degradation of polymers and is an indicator for this process. At 50°C, the highest decomposition rate, resulting in the highest CO2 production, was recorded in the case of corn starch films. Oxy-biodegradable material showed worst degradation potential what excludes it from composting processes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Poluszyńska
1
Tomasz Ciesielczuk
2
Marcin Biernacki
1
Maciej Paciorkowski
1

  1. Research Network Łukasiewicz – Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Division of Material,Processing and Environmental Engineering, Opole, Poland
  2. Opole University, Opole, Poland
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Abstract

Dumping sites or landfills are considered as foremost common option of waste management worldwide. Dumping sites, often not lined, represent a potential environmental issue causing a long-term risk to the environment and health. A number of computers model-based studies have described the solid waste collection and its management, but provide little information about the relative contributions regarding environmental impacts of landfilling especially in the context of developing world. The aim of study was to estimate environmental impacts from dumping site by using EASEWASTE model. A case study was carried out at an old and closed dumping site filled with mixed waste without bottom liner, no leachate collection and gas collection. On the basis of the existing dumping site investigation, a Mahmood Booti Dumping Site Scenario was developed, and related data of waste generation & composition was collected and added to assess environmental impacts. The results show that human toxicity via soil (9.14E+09 m3 soil) had the highest potential impact, followed by global warming (8.83E+11 Kg CO2-eq), eco-toxicity in water (6.25E+11 m3 water), and eco-toxicity in soil (6.54E+10 m3 soil). This is mostly caused by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. The adopted risk analysis approach uses easily accessible computer aided models, for open dumping sites, appears to be a key tool to assist decision makers in establishing priorities for remediation action.
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Authors and Affiliations

Asifa Alam
1
Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry
2
Sajid Rashid Ahmad
3
Aadila Batool
3
Adeel Mahmood
4
Huda Ahmad Al-Ghamdi
5

  1. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Pakistan
  2. Department of Environmental Science and Policy, Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan
  3. Remote Sensing, GIS and Climatic Research Lab, Department of Space Sciences, University of the Punjab, Pakistan
  4. Department of Environmental Sciences, Government College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
  5. Department of Biology, College of Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
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Abstract

A method to improve the quality of purifi ed water, reduce the cost of reagents for the regeneration of resin and create low-waste processes have been developed. This paper presents the results of ion exchange separation of sulfates and nitrates using AV-17-8 anion exchange resin in NO3 form. The effi ciency of anion separation on the highly basic anion exchange resin AV-17-8 depends on the magnitude and ratio of their concentrations in water. Separation on the AV-17-8 anion exchange resin has been shown to be eff ective at concentrations of sulfates up to 800 mg/dm3 and nitrates up to 100 mg/dm3. Conditions for regeneration of 10% NaNO3 anion exchange resin were determined. Reagent precipitation of sulfates from the used regeneration solution in the form of calcium sulfate was carried out. Calcium sulfate precipitate can be used in the manufacturing of building materials. The regeneration solution is suitable for reuse. The developed results will allow to introduce low-waste desalination technology of highly mineralized waters.
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Authors and Affiliations

Inna Trus
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mukola Gomelya
1
ORCID: ORCID
Viktoria Vorobyova
1
ORCID: ORCID
Margarita Skіba
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. National Technical University of Ukraine «Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute», Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. Ukrainian State Chemical-Engineering University, Dnipro, Ukraine
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Abstract

Fluorine and sodium chloride are common elements present in the water environment. According to WHO guidelines fluoride content in water cannot be not higher than 1.5 mgF-/dm3. Elevated fluoride content was observed all over the world and it leads to many health issues. It can be removed with the usage of various methods (ion exchange, membrane processes, adsorption, precipitation). In this paper fluoride removal with nanofiltration usage was described. Tests were performed with the application of Amicon 86400 filtration cells. Two types of commercial nanofiltration membranes NP010P and NP030P (Microdyn Nadir) were used. Transmembrane pressure was established as 0.3 MPa. For lower fluoride concentrations (5 mgF-/dm3) NF process allowed to decrease fluoride content under level 1.5 mgF-/dm3. Removal efficiency decreased with increasing fluoride content. Membrane NP030P showed better separation properties. Sodium chloride influenced removal efficiency as well as fluoride adsorption on/in membranes during the process. According to obtained data, better hydraulic properties exhibited membrane NP010P. For both membranes decrease in permeate flux in comparison to pure water was noticed what was observed. Relative permeability was lowered even to 0.32.
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Authors and Affiliations

Martyna Grzegorzek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology,Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

The alternative waste fuels have a significant share in the fuel mix of the cement industry in Poland. The conditions inside cement kilns are favorable enough for environmentally-friendly use of waste fuels. In the article, the authors discuss the current situation concerning the use of alternative fuels in Poland, from difficult beginning in the 1990s to the present time, different kinds of fuels, and the amounts of used fuels. The use of fuels in Poland is presented against the global and EU consumption (including Central European countries and companies). The increased use of waste-derived fuels, from the level of about 1% at the end of the 1990s to the present level of about 70%, allowed for the limitation of waste storage, including avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions and consumption of conventional energy sources; those effects also contributed to the implementation of the sustainable development and circular economy conceptions. The experiences of the cement plants worldwide prove that the use of waste fuels is ecological and economical. The examples showed in the article confirm that cement plants are greatly interested in using waste fuels from waste, as they invest in the infrastructure allowing to store bigger amounts of waste and dose them more efficiently. Thus, the cement industry has become an important element of the country’s energy economy and waste management system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Alicja Uliasz-Bocheńczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jan Deja
2
ORCID: ORCID
Eugeniusz Mokrzycki
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Resource Management, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science, and Ceramics, Poland
  3. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

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