Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

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Polish Polar Research | Early Access |

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Abstract

This study presents the determination of the content of selected metals (Ba, Ca, Fe, Nb, Rb, Sr, Y, Zn, and Zr) in postglacial deposits from two glacial valleys (Ebbadalen and Elsadalen) in the Petunia Bay (southern Spitsbergen). The aim of the research was to experimentally check the usefulness of the handheld energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique in the study of samples from the polar zone, before performing the future field tests. Deposit analyses were performed (in parallel) with two handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometers from different manufacturers, to investigate the accuracy and reliability of the instruments. The statistical analysis of the results indicated that the measurements carried out with two spectrometers were statistically significantly different, which was probably due to the different calibration characteristics used by the manufacturers. However, the analysis of the spatial distribution of element concentrations using Geographic Information System tools showed that the distribution maps of elements concentrations were similar regardless of the spectrometer used in the analyses.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lidia Kozak
1
Juliana Silva Souza
1
Adam Nawrot
2
Jędrzej Proch
1
Marcin Kaźmierski
3
Agnieszka Zawieja
4
Przemysław Niedzielski
1

  1. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 8, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
  2. Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, Księcia Janusza 64, 01-452 Warszawa, Poland
  3. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Geographical and Geological Sciences, Bogumiła Krygowskiego 10, 61-680 Poznań, Poland
  4. MEWO S.A., Starogardzka 16, 83-010 Straszyn, Poland
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Abstract

Humic substances are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Humic acids (HAs) actively interact with organic and inorganic components of lake sediments. This interaction depends on the molecular structure and elemental composition of HAs. The presented research focuses on the investigation of the composition and molecular structure of humic acids isolated from lakes located in the Lena Delta in the Russian Arctic. The findings of the research are needed to estimate the potential capacity of humic acids to bind microelements, particularly toxic metals, in stable compounds. Surface sediment samples (0–10 cm) were collected from 8 lakes by Van Veen grab during the summer period of the “Expedition LENA 2019”. We analyzed elemental composition of the HAs samples. The results showed that the studied HAs of lake sediments are characterized by low nitrogen content and prevalence of aliphatic fragments in their molecular structure. Furthermore, it was found that the studied humic acids are less mature, showing mineralization processes dominant over humification, and have relatively low potential to complexation compared with soils of the Lena Delta as well as lake sediments of territories with more boreal climate conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Alina V. Guzeva
1
Ekaterina A. Krylova
2
Irina V. Fedorova
2

  1. St. Petersburg Federal Research Center of RAS, Institute of Limnology RAS, Sevastyanova 9, St. Petersburg, 196105, Russia
  2. St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya enb. 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia
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Abstract

Extremely dense fog event was studied on the 3rd December 2001, which occurred in the city of Apatity, the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. Fog had low visibility (30–50 m) and lasted 17 h. Variations of atmospheric pressure and electric field before and during the fog event were measured. Multiple Taper Method (MTM) of spectral analysis has revealed pulsations of the atmospheric electric field in the frequency band of 0.007–0.05 Hz with a power-law turbulence spectrum. MTM and wavelet decomposition analysis results indicate the appearance of two types of atmospheric pressure oscillations under the fog conditions: low-frequency variations with periods of internal gravity waves and a substantial increase in pulsation intensity (more than an order of magnitude) in the high frequency (0.03–0.35 Hz) range. These results may help to improve the understanding of the microphysics of fog formation, development, and dissipation. High-frequency pulsations generation of atmospheric pressure under the fog conditions is also of interest because their period is close to the range of infrasonic oscillations, which can have negative consequences for human health.
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Authors and Affiliations

Oleg I. Shumilov
1
Elena A. Kasatkina
1
Dmitry V. Makarov
1
Marek Krapiec
2

  1. Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems, Kola Science Centre RAS, Fersman 14a, Apatity, Russia
  2. University of Science and Technology (AGH), Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

Atmospheric gases and chemical impurities can be stored and chemically transformed in the tropospheric ice. Impurities are rejected during freezing of the ice to the grain boundaries, free ice surfaces or inclusions. Surface snow and tropospheric ice, however, may be exposed to high temperatures and, eventually, the gases and chemical impurities can be released into the environment. It is important to study the surface structure and transport mechanisms at temperatures near the melting point because the location of impurities and their interactions with water molecules in the ice are not yet sufficiently explained. In this work, the evolution of a scratch on the bicrystalline ice surface was studied at −5 ℃. The surface transport mechanisms near the melting point were studied and, as a consequence, the surface structure could be determined. An ice sample was kept immersed in ultra-pure silicone oil to prevent evaporation and, thus, isolate the effect of surface diffusion. The ice sample was made with water with chemical conditions similar to the water of polar ice sheets. Photographs of the scratch were taken periodically, for approximately 50 hours, using a photographic camera coupled to an optical microscope. From these images, the evolution of the width of the scratch was studied and the surface diffusion was the dominant transport mechanism in the experiment. Finally, the ice surface self-diffusion coefficient at −5 ℃ was determined and it was very similar to the super-cooled water diffusion coefficient. A liquid-like behavior of ice surfaces near the melting point was found and it could have a strong influence on the reaction rates with atmospheric gases.
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Authors and Affiliations

Guillermo Aguirre Varela
Carlos L. Di Prinzio
Damián Stoler
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Abstract

Seasonal variations of the isotopic and chemical compositions of snowpits can provide useful tools for dating the age of the snowpit and examining the sources of aerosol. Based on the seasonal layers with D and 18O maxima and minima, it was determined that the snowpit, conducted in the vicinity of the Jang Bogo Station in Antarctica, contained snow deposited over a three-year period (2008–2010). Distinct seasonal variations of stable water isotopes were observed, with a slope of 8.2 from the linear isotopic relationship between oxygen and hydrogen, which indicates that the snow accumulated during three years without a significant post-depositional process. The positive correlations (r > 0.85) between Na+ and other ions in the winter period and the positive relationship the concentrations of the methanesulphonic acid (MSA) and non-sea salt sulfate (nssSO42–) in the warm period (r = 0.6, spring to summer) indicate the significant contributions of an oceanic source to the snowpit. Based on principal component analysis, the isotopic and chemical variables were classified into species representing input of sea-salt aerosol and suggesting potential seasonal markers. This study will support further investigations using ice cores in this region.
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Authors and Affiliations

Soon Do Hur
1
Jiwoong Chung
1
Yalalt Namgerel
1 2
Jeonghoon Lee
2

  1. Division of Glacial Environmental Research, Korea Polar Research Institute, 26, Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21990, Korea
  2. Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, Korea

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