This paper presents the results of investigations of the cryochemical processes in the glacial ice and the long-term permafrost in Spitsbergen, which have been confirmed by laboratory experiments. These investigations were performed on two glaciers: the Bertil Glacier, which lies in the central part of West Spitsbergen, and the Werenskiöld Glacier, in the southern part of Spitsbergen. This paper also gives results for the unglaciated Fugleberget basin on the Hornsund Fiord in South Spitsbergen. It the autumn, winter and spring seasons distinct effects of cryochemical processes were found. They could be seen: 1) In the increased mineralization of the water circulating inside the glacier and the permafrost, which results from the freezing process (autumn and winter), and in the relatively high mineralization of the water in the early ablation period (spring); 2) in the precipitation of salts from the freezing water, both at the glacier front (winter naled ice), in the glacial caves and the unglaciated region. Sulphate salts (mainly gypsum) are most often precipitated. Carbonates (mainly calcites) were also found to precipitate. Calcites precipitate on the walls of limestone caves and even in the limestone rubble on talus cones. The experiments carried out at the Polish Station at Hornsund aimed at determination of the actual changes in the mineralization of Spitsbergen water caused by the processes of freezing and thawing.
This paper contains thsults of hydrological and hydrochemical investigations carried out in the basin of Werenskiöld Glacier against the background of determining climate elements. It also gives chosen elements of the water balance and mass balance determined from year-long investigations of the polar hydrological year 1979-1980.
This paper gives the results of investigations carried out in the Fugleberget basin which lies on the northern shore of the Hornsund Fiord, in the unglaciated region of raised sea terraces and on the slopes of the Fugleberget (569 m a.s.l.) and the Ariekammen (511 m a.s.l.). The investigations were carried out between 23 July, 1979 and 4 September, 1980, including the polar night. The Fugleberget basin represents well the area of sea terraces and coastal mountains uncovered with glacier and occupying large areas in West Spitsbergen. These areas are characterized by the presence of permafrost. The aim of investigations was to determine such fluvial processes as the duration of the hydrological period, the manner of water supply to the basin and an attempt to define the elements of the water balance. In addition studies were made on hydrological processes, particulary changes in the chemical composition of water, and the magnitude of denudation determined.
This paper contains the result of the comparison of photogrammetric records of the state of the front zone of the Werenskiold Glacier over the period 1957-1978. Two 1:5000 maps were compared. The ice volume loss at 20 m altitude intervals (only as far up as 200 m over the sea level) and changes in the ice thickness were analysed with a network of basic squares with a 50 m side in the field, using an Odra 1305 computer. This permitted a map of the altitude changes in the glacier front to be plotted with isolines every 2.5 m. The results of the photogrammetric investigations were compared with ablation observations using ablations stakes. Taking account of the motion of the lobe the total and the mean annual ice volume loss in the front zone of the Werenskiold Glacier was evaluated for the period in question.
In the summers of 1978 and 1979 meteorological observations and measurements were carried out in South Spitsbergen. These investigations gave a characteristic of the summer meteorological conditions in the forefield of the Gås Glacier. Some regularities were found to exist in the distribution of air temperature and other meteorological elements.
The Goesvatnet is a lake whose water is dammed by the Gås Glacier. It undergoes periodic subglacial and inglacial drainage, usually in winter. When fully filled it is about 60 m deep and has the surface of about 1 km2. An attempt was made to explain the mechanism of the drainage of the lake. Changes in the situation and range of the lake over the period of 81 years were investigated. The magnitude and character of the deglaciation of the front part of the Gås Glacier were determined. A strict relationship was found between the drainage of the lake and the presence of naled ice in the extramarginal outwash (Gåshamnoyra).
The aim of geological investigations the results of which are given in this paper was identify the presence of Carboniferous coal in the area south of Homsund (Figs. 1 and 2). The field investigations were carried out in the summer of 1979 within the scientific expedition organized by the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (problem MR-II-16/B). The investigations covered the northwestern part of Sörkappland, south of Hornsund and west of the Wurmbrandegga and Wiederfjellet (Fig. 2).
This paper discussed the results of pilot magnetic investigations carried out at the foot of the Fugleberget mountain and in the Skå valley in the area of the morthwestern shores of the Hornsund Fiord. The investigations showed the large usefulness of the magnetic method in stratification of different rock types which occur within the metamorphic complex, and, in the case of magma intrusions, they found that dolerity dykes are characterized by high, uniform magnetization and very simple geometrical form.
This paper describes the method of prospective magnetic research under natural conditions of strong interference by the external variable magnetic field. This method of synchronized measurements, when some given assumptions are satisfied, permits magnetic survey of the accuracy 1-2 nT to be carried out. It was used in detailed investigations of weak anomalous fields.
This paper discusses the results of gravimetric and magnetic investigations carried out on the Hans Glacier (Hansbreen) in the area of the Hornsund Fiord in Spitsbergen. These pilot investigations were performed in profiles running across to the extension of the glacier. Analysis of the magnetic measurements permits the supposition that in the base of the glacier there are amphibolites assigned to the Skålfjellet series, one of the oldest links of the metamorphic complex in Spitsbergen. Fig. 3 shows the behaviour of the amphibolites determined from the qualitative and quantitative properties of the anomalies ΔT. This paper also determined the thickness of the glacier in a cross-section 1.5 km distant from its front. From interpretation of the gravity anomaly, thickness varies between several and more than 100 m, taking the highest values in the central part of the glacier.
The differentiation of the isotopic composition of glacial water in some Hornsund glaciers was found to depend on its position with respect to the firn line, situation in the circulation system and on seasonal variations of air temperature. Intensive ice thawing in the ablation zone is marked by decreased values of the tritium content in the discharge of the glacier, whereas water from thawing snow nad firn increases these values. The isotopic differentiation which occures in waters in the main flow systems indicates the magnitude of the shares of water from thawed ice firn and snow in the total drainage of the glacier.
Three major pre-Quaternary glaciations have been recognised on King George Island. South Shetland Islands (West Antarctica). The oldest is the Melville Glaciation evidence by fossiferous glaciomarine sediments. Presence of numerous belemnites and Cretaceous calcareous nannoplankton suggested at first a late Cretaceous age. However three is an increasing evidence that these Cretaceous fossils are recycled and occur in late Tertiary (?Miocene) strata. Two glaciations separated with an interglacial have been recognised in a thick Pliocene sequence of laves and sediments. The older Polonez Glaciation is represented by continental-type tillites succeeded by glaciomarine sediments with Chlamys anderssoni fauna. Acidic volcanic activity, coarse-clastic sedimentation and subaerial erosion characterise a mid-Pliocene Wesele Interglacial succeeding the Polonez Glaciation. Andesitic laves and lahars cut by glacially eroded valleys with strongly diagenesized tillites represent the youngest, late-Pliocene Legru Glaciation.
An about 200-m long sandstone dyke cutting through the shales of the Janusfjellet Formation (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) has been discovered at Janusfjellet Central Spitsbergen. The palynomorph assemblage and the character of sandstone from the dyke are indicative of the Firkanten Formation of Paleocene age.
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