Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Content

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2021 | vol. 66 | No 2 |

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Abstract

The results of tests and examinations of the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast steel used for large-size slag ladles are presented. Castings of this type (especially large-size ladles with a capacity of up to 16 m3) operate under very demanding conditions resulting from the repeated cycles of filling and emptying the ladle with liquid slag at a temperature exceeding even 1600°C. The changes in operating temperature cause faster degradation and wear of slag ladle castings, mainly due to thermal fatigue.
The tests carried out on samples taken from different parts/areas of the ladle (flange, bottom and half-height) showed significant differences in the microstructure of the flange and bottom part as compared to the microstructure obtained at half-height of the ladle wall. The flange and bottom were characterized by a ferritic-pearlitic microstructure, while the microstructure at the ladle half-height consisted of a ferritic matrix, cementite and graphite precipitates. Changes in microstructure affected the mechanical properties. Based on the test results it was found that both the flange and the bottom of the ladle had higher mechanical properties, i.e. UTS, YS, hardness, and impact energy than the centre of the ladle wall. Fractography showed the mixed character of fractures with the predominance of brittle fracture. Microporosity and clusters of non-metallic inclusions were also found in the fractures of samples characterized by low properties.
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Authors and Affiliations

B. Kalandyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Zapała
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Sobula
1
ORCID: ORCID
G. Tęcza
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Piotrowski
2

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Cast Alloys and Composite Engineering, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, 23 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. Krakodlew S.A., 1 Ujastek Str., 30-969 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

Aurivillius Bi5Ti3FeO15 (BTF) and Bi5-xNdxTi3FeO15 (BNTF) ceramics were successfully synthesized by a simple solid state reaction method. Ceramics were prepared from simple oxide powders Bi2O3, TiO­2, Nd2O3 and Fe2O3. The microstructure, structure, chemical composition and dielectric properties of the obtained materials were examined. Dielectric properties were investigated in a wide range of temperatures (T = 25ºC-550ºC) and frequencies (20Hz-1MHz).
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Authors and Affiliations

N. Kocoń
1
J. Dzik
ORCID: ORCID
D. Szalbot
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Pikula
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Adamczyk-Habrajska
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Wodecka-Duś
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Silesia, Institute of Materials Science, 12 Zytnia Str., 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
  2. Lublin University of Technology, Institute of Electronics and Information Technology, 38A Nadbystrzycka Str., 20-618 Lublin, Poland
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Abstract

A source of pure silicon was added into an alloy refining system during a refining process with the application of a direct electric current. The effect of the temperature difference between the graphite electrodes and the alloy was decreased. The temperature increase value (ΔT) of the Al-28.51wt.%Si alloy sample caused by Joule heating was calculated by weighing the mass of primary silicon. When the current density was 5.0×105 A/m2, the overall temperature increase in the alloy was about 90°C regardless of the alloy composition. Adequate silicon atoms recorded the footprint of the electric current in the alloy melt. The flow convection generated by the electric current in the melt during the solidification process resulted in the refinement of primary silicon. The Fe impurity content in alloy refining without the electric current density was 2.16 ppm. However, it decreased to 1.27 ppmw with the application of an electric current density of 5.0×105 A/m2.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jiayan Li
1 2
Benson Kihono Njuguna
1 2
Ping Ni
1 2
Liang Wang
2 1
Yi Tan
1 2

  1. Dalian University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 2 Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116023, China
  2. Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory for Solar Energy Photovoltaic System of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024, China
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Abstract

In this study, the effects of heat treatment on aluminum/steel structural transition joint (STJ) strength were analyzed with ram tensile tests to find the right welding conditions. Before ram tensile tests, the specimens were subjected to different heat treatments to simulate possible thermal conditions, which may occur during the welding of STJ to the steel side of ship construction. Temperatures were varied from 100°C to 500°C, and durations were changed between 5-25 minutes in the heat treatments. The results of the ram tensile tests indicated that tensile strength decreased above 300°C. Micro-hardness test and microstructure examination were conducted to understand behavior change during ram tensile tests. The investigation showed that precipitation of the secondary hard phases with aging at interface above 300°C, reduced the bonding between aluminum and steel materials, which lead to a decrease of strength, and also changed the mechanical behavior of the STJ during ram test from ductile to brittle fracture. If the temperature is below 500°C and the duration is under 15 minutes, the STJ strength value meets the standard requirement. Short and rapid welding could be suggested to reduce heat buildup during welding.
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Authors and Affiliations

Y. Palaci
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Olgun
1

  1. Yildiz Technical University, Naval Arch. and Marine Eng. Dept, Besiktas , Istanbul, Turkey
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Abstract

This study focused on the fatigue and corrosion fatigue of maraging steel 18Ni (250). The 18Ni (250) samples were tested for axial fatigue in air and 3.5% NaCl solution. The effects of loading frequency and stress ratio on the fatigue strength of 18Ni (250) were studied. In air, the loading frequency was 10 Hz, and the stress ratio was 0.5. However, three loading methods were used in the 3.5% NaCl solution: (i) the loading frequency of 1 Hz and stress ratio of 0.5; (ii) the loading frequency of 1 Hz and stress ratio 0.1, and (iii) the loading frequency 5 Hz and stress ratio 0.5. The corrosion fatigue strength of samples in the 3.5% NaCl solution was 63.3% lower than that of the samples in air. The fractures in the samples were observed after the test.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhu Yongmei
1
Chen Junjie
1
Tang Wenxian
1
Cui Weicheng
2 3
Wang Xiaorong
1
Wang Fang
2
Yin Baoji
1

  1. Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhenjiang 212003, China
  2. College of Engineering Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
  3. Westlake University, School of Engineering, Hangzhou 310024, China
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Abstract

The paper studied the tribological behaviour of electro discharge deposited ZE41A magnesium alloy using wear map. The wear experiments are conducted using pin on disc technique for different parameters such as applied load (1.5 kg-3.5 kg), sliding speed (100 rpm-200 rpm) and sliding time (3 min-7 min). Wear mechanism map is constructed by taking the applied load on y-axis and sliding speed on x-axis. The wear mechanism map is utilized to study the dominance of particular wear mechanism that dominates particular wear regimes such as mild wear, severe wear and ultra severe wear. It is observed that the wear rate increased with increased the applied load and sliding speed. Various mechanisms such as abrasion, oxidation, delamination and melting are identified through scanning electron microscope (SEM).
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Authors and Affiliations

U. Elaiyarasan
1
ORCID: ORCID
V. Satheeshkumar
2
ORCID: ORCID
C. Senthilkumar
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Automobile Engineering, Easwari Engineering College, Chennai, India-600089
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Salem, India-636011
  3. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, Panruti-607106, India
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Abstract

Tensile strength of aluminum castings has been improved by employing surge and filter in a conventional non-pressurizing gating system. For this purpose, three non-pressurizing bottom-gating systems were designed where the first design was a simple design with no filter and no surge, in the second design filter and in the third one surge was added to the end of runner. Tensile strength, Weibull module, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis, and melt pattern during the mold filling were thoroughly analyzed to compare these three designs. It was observed that employing filter and surge in the gating system reduces flow kinetic energy and consequently avoid surface turbulence and air entrainment, which leads to castings with fewer defects and higher reliabilities. Finally, it found that appropriate use of surge in the running system can be as effective as employing a filter in reducing melt front velocity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Amir Baghani
1
Ali Kheirabi
2
Ahmad Bahmani
3
Hamid Khalilpour
4

  1. University of Iowa Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa City, IA, USA
  2. Iran University of Science and Technology School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Tehran, Iran
  3. University of Tehran Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Iran
  4. Laval University, Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Québec, Canada
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Abstract

This paper investigates the influence of 1%, 2% and 3% zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles to the melting, microstructural and mechanical properties of the Sn58Bi solder. Melting temperatures of 145.11°C, 140.89°C and 143.84°C were attained correspondingly for the 1%, 2% and 3% ZrO2 reinforced Sn58Bi solder. The microstructures especially the spacing between the lamellar structures of the Sn58Bi solder alloy was narrower for 1% ZrO2 added with Sn58Bi solder alloy. The highest and lowest hardness value of 32.28 HV and 27.62 HV was recorded for 1% and 2% ZrO2 additions respectively. Highest shear strength value was noted for the 3% ZrO2 added SnBi/Copper joint with 0.8712 kN, while the lowest value of 0.4380 kN noted for the 1% ZrO2 added SnBi/Copper joint. The presence of small-sized ZrO2 nanoparticles can be seen to be properly dispersed at the solder joint to increase the shear load at maximum joint stress.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Amares
1 2
R. Durairaj
2
S.H. Kuan
2

  1. Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
  2. Center of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, SEGi University No. 9, Jalan Teknologi, Taman Sains Selangor, Kota Damansara PJU 5, 47810 Petaling Jaya , Selangor, Malaysia
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Abstract

The article has presented the method of 3D Digital Light Processing printing as one of the technologies used for rapid prototyping of dental models and making elements of dentures. In this work the research was presented, which the aim was to determine the effect of additional exposure time on the properties of the obtained printouts. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis test showed significant differences in stiffness between uncured specimens as well as specimens cured for 10, 20 and 30 minutes. In turn the obtained TG and DTG curves allowed to determine the most optimal curing time for DLP printouts. These studies provide the basis for determining the most appropriate method for handling printouts after the process of printing from liquid resin, so that they are the best possible quality for dentists and prosthodontists.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Redutko
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Kalwik
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Szarek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation,21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The statistical-thermodynamic theory of ordering and electronic theory of ordering in the pseudo-potential approximation was used to study the influence of ternary addition of some transition metals on the atomic ordering behavior of Co0.5(Ti1–xMx)0.5 alloys with M = Fe, Pt, Re, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ag, Hf or Au up to a concentration of 1 at.%. The partial ordering energies, order-disorder phase transformation temperatures and partial short range order parameters have been calculated for these alloys. The analysis shows that the impurity elements in Co0.5(Ti1–xMx)0.5 alloys can be divided into two main groups on the basis of lattice site occupancy i.e. M = V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ag, Hf and Au mainly substitute for Co sublattice sites whereas M = Fe, Ni, Pt or Re mainly substitute for Ti sublattice sites. Further, the order-disorder transformation temperatures were found to either increase or remain nearly unchanged by the addition of ternary impurities in the CoTi alloy depending on the absolute value of the partial ordering energies. Alloys of Ti with V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ag, Hf or Au in place of Co and alloys of Co with Fe, Ni, Pt or Re in place of Ti can be predicted for future. The results of the present analysis are in good agreement with the available experimental data on these alloys.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abid Hussain
1
Amer Bashir Ziya
2
Shabbar Atiq
3
Muhammad Saleem
1
Mahtab Ullah
2
Sajjad Ahmad
2
Naseeb Ahmad
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Khwaja Fareed University of Eng. & IT, Department of Physics, Rahimyar Khan-64200, Pakistan
  2. Bahauddin Zakariya University, Department of Physics, Multan -60800, Pakistan
  3. Bahauddin Zakariya University, Institute of Advanced Materials, Multan -60800, Pakistan
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Abstract

Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) techniques have been used by researchers for last three decades in order to obtain Ultra-Fine Grained (UFG) materials. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is preferred more than other SPD techniques thanks to its high performance and practicability. Hexa Equal Channel Angular Pressing (Hexa-ECAP) – modified ECAP technique which enables to apply ECAP routes for cylindrical samples properly – was preferred in this study. Within the objective of this study, the effects of coefficient and ram velocity on the mean effective strain and strain inhomogeneity of Hexa-ECAP processed Al7075 aluminium alloy were investigated. Also, the effects of ram velocity and friction coefficient on hardness homogeneity were investigated benefitting from the similarity between the hardness distribution and the strain distribution.
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Authors and Affiliations

Serkan Öğüt
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hasan Kaya
2
Aykut Kentli
1
Kerim Özbeyaz
1
Mehmet Şahbaz
3
Mehmet Uçar
4

  1. Marmara University, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Istanbul – Turkey
  2. Kocaeli University, Asım Kocabıyık Vocational School, Machine and Metal Technology Department, Kocaeli – Turkey
  3. Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Karaman, Turkey
  4. Kocaeli University, Faculty of Technology, Automotive Engineering Department, Kocaeli – Turkey
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Abstract

This work aims to analyze the effects of niobium on the bioactivity of a titanium, nickel, aluminum, and niobium alloy obtained by the Plasma Skull Push Pull process (PSPP). Titanium alloys, such as NiTinol (NiTi), are metallic biomaterials that have wide application in health and surgical prostheses. In this work the microstructural and bioactivity characteristics of the alloys are evaluated. The addition of aluminum improves alloy ductility and reduces its cost. The addition of niobium favors the hydroxyapatite nucleation. Therefore, the addition of the combination of the two elements contributes to lower cost and better alloy bioactivity.
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Authors and Affiliations

R.L.P. Teixeira
1
ORCID: ORCID
J.C. de Lacerda
1
ORCID: ORCID
I.C Conceição
1
ORCID: ORCID
S.N. da Silva
2
ORCID: ORCID
G.O. Siqueira
1
ORCID: ORCID
F. Moura Filho
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itabira, MG, Brazil
  2. Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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Abstract

The present research work involves the study of the 3-D surface microtexture of sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) prepared on glass substrates by DC magnetron at room temperature. The samples were annealed at 450°C in air and were distributed into five groups, dependent on ambient combinations applied, as follows: I group, using argon (Ar); II group, using argon with oxygen (Ar+O2); III group, using argon with oxygen and nitrogen (Ar+O2+N2); IV group, using argon with oxygen and hydrogen (Ar+O2+H2); and V group, using argon with oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen (Ar+O2+N2+H2). The characterization of the ITO thin film surface microtexture was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images were stereometrically quantitatively analyzed to obtain statistical parameters, by ISO 25178-2: 2012 and ASME B46.1-2009. The results have shown that the 3-D surface microtexture parameters change in accordance with different fabrication ambient combinations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ş. Ţălu
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Kulesza
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Bramowicz
2
ORCID: ORCID
K. Stępień
3
ORCID: ORCID
D. Dastan
4

  1. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, The Directorate of Research, Development and Innovation Management (DMCDI), Cluj-Napoca, 400020, Romania
  2. University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Faculty of Technical Sciences, 11 Oczapowskiego Str., 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  3. Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Aleja 1000-lecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
  4. Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA
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Abstract

Refill friction stir spot welding (refill FSSW) was used to weld 3.2-mm-thick 2060 aluminum alloy. Joint formation, defect characteristics and tensile-shear property were analyzed. Results show that keyhole can be completely eliminated under different plunge depths. However, defects such as void, unconnected welding, hook can be observed under the plunge depths of 3.4-4 mm. The size of the overall void initially increased and then decreased with the increase of the plunge depth, while the void was the smallest under the plunge depth of 3.4 mm. The unconnected defect at the lap interface gradually shrank a welding line from obvious crack. Different hook morphologies were observed under different plunge depths. The tensile-shear load of joint increased with the increase of the plunge depth and was up to the largest under the plunge depth of 4 mm. All the tensile-shear specimens fractured along the lap interface. Compared with the void, the unconnected defect had a greater influence on the tensile-shear property.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yue Wang
1 2
Peng Chai
1 2

  1. Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beijing 100191, P. R. China
  2. Beijing FSW Technology Co., Ltd, Avic Manufacturing Technology Institute, 100024, P. R. China
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Abstract

The electronic, optical and thermoelectric properties of MoS2 nano-sheet in presence of the Ru impurity have been calculated by density functional theory framework with Generalized Gradient approximation. The MoRuS2 nano-sheet electronic structure was changed to the n-type semiconductor by 1.3 eV energy gap. The optical coefficients were shown that the loosing optical energy occurred in the higher ultraviolet region, so this compound is a promising candidate for optical sensing in the infrared and visible range. The thermoelectric behaviors were implied to the good merit parameter in the 100K range and room temperatures and also has high amount of power factor in 600K which made it for power generators applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

Firouzeh Motamad Dezfuli
1
ORCID: ORCID
Arash Boochani
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sara Sadat Parhizgar
1
ORCID: ORCID
Elham Darabi
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  2. Department of Physics, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
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Abstract

The goal of this paper is to measure the non-wetting to wetting transition temperatures of liquid tin on surfaces of different steel samples in vacuum with residual pressure of 10–8 bar. The experiments were conducted on four steels (C45, S103, CK60 and EN1.4034) of varying compositions using pure tin (99.99%) by the sessile drop method. Non-wetting to wetting transition (contact angle decreasing below 90°) by liquid tin was observed as function of increasing temperature in the range of 820-940 K for low alloyed steels C45, S103 and CK60, while it was considerably higher (around 1130 K) for high chromium EN1.4034 steel. It is concluded that at about the same temperatures, the surfaces of the steel samples are spontaneously deoxidized due to the combined effect of high temperature, low vacuum and C-content of steels. After the oxide layer is removed, the contact angles of liquid tin on steel surfaces were found in the range of 45-80° for low alloyed C45, S103 and CK60 steels and around 20° for high chromium EN1.4034 steel. These relatively high contact angle values compared to other metal/metal couples (such as liquid Cu on steels) are due to the formation of not fully metallic intermetallic compounds (FeSn and FeSn2) at the interface (such do not form in the Cu/Fe system).
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Varanasi
1
K.E. Aldawoudi
1
P. Baumli
1
D. Koncz-Horvath
1
G. Kaptay
1

  1. University of Miskolc, Institute of Physical Metallurgy, Metal Forming and Nanotechnology, 3515 Miskolc-Egyetemvaros, Hungary
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Abstract

Prolonged exposure to UV radiation, and ever-increasing life expectancy, mean that an increasing proportion of the population suffers from clouding of the intraocular lens. Nowadays, the performance of intraocular implantation procedures is commonplace. Unfortunately, with the increasing number of operations, the number of postoperative complications is also increasing. One way to avoid complications may be to use an intraocular implant that has been immersed in a solution containing silver nanoparticles. As part of the study, four selected intraocular implants – that are available on the ophthalmic market – were tested. In order to investigate the effect of silver particles on the optical properties of the implants, tests were carried out using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Two series of implants were tested: before and after immersion in a silver solution. The implants were immersed for a period of 7 days. It was found that the presence of silver particles does not have a negative impact on the translucency of the implants.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Jeż
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Gacek
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
1
ORCID: ORCID
L. Toth
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Pike-Biegunski
3

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Physics, 19 Armii Krajowej Str., 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
  2. Óbuda University, Bánki Donát Faculty of Mechanical and Safety Engineering, Material Science Department, 1081, Népszínház 8, Budapest, Hungary
  3. Nano Koloid sp. z o. o, Hoża 62/37, 00-682 Warszawa, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to present the results of the examinations of the structure and thermomechanical properties of PA6/NanoBent composite. NanoBent composites composed of minerals from the smectite group (mainly montmorillonite) were used for modification of polyamide 6. PA6 composite with content of 1, 3, 5% of NanoBent was prepared in a Theysohn TSK 75-N twin screw extruder. The samples were prepared using the injection technology by means of a Krauss-Maffei KM65-160 C1 injection molding machine. The samples of composites obtained at different injection temperatures and injection mold temperatures were used for the examinations. Degree of crystallinity was examined using the DSC method whereas the material structure was examined with an optical microscope. DSC studies showed a reduction in the value of the degree of crystallinity with the increasing content of nanofiller in the polymer material. The narrowing of the peak was recorded in the DSC thermograms for nanocomposites with greater percentage of the nanofiller. Dynamical properties of polyamide 6 nanocomposite were also determined in relation to temperature and frequency. The samples were bended at frequencies of 1 Hz and 10 Hz over the temperature range from –100°C to 180°C and the heating rate of 2K/min. A significant increase in storage modulus was observed for PA6 samples with the content of 5% of NanoBent obtained at the injection temperature of 270°C and mold temperature of 70°C. Smaller size of spherulites and arrangement of structural elements in clusters along the line of polymeric material flow in the mold cavity at higher contents of NanoBent were observed during structural examinations of the composites.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Gnatowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Gołębski
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Stachowiak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Technology and Automation, 19c Armii Krajowej Ave, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

Knowledge about complex physical phenomena used in the casting process simulation requires continuous complementary research and improvement in mathematical modeling. The basic mathematical model taking into account only thermal phenomena often becomes insufficient to analyze the process of metal solidification, therefore more complex models are formulated, which include coupled heat-flow phenomena, mechanical or shrinkage phenomena. However, such models significantly complicate and lengthen numerical simulations; therefore the work is limited only to the analysis of coupled thermal and flow phenomena. The mathematical description consists then of a system of Navier-Stokes differential equations, flow continuity and energy. The finite element method was used to numerically modeling this problem. In computer simulations, the impact of liquid metal movements on the alloy solidification process in the casting-riser system was assessed, which was the purpose of this work, and the locations of possible shrinkage defects were pointed out, trying to ensure the right supply conditions for the casting to be free from these defects.
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Authors and Affiliations

L. Sowa
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Skrzypczak
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Kwiatoń
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design Fundamentals, 73 Dąbrowskiego Str., 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

In this work, the influence of plastic injection molding conditions, mainly plasticizing conditions: plasticizing pressure (back pressure) and decompression (suck-back) after dosing on weight, thickness, mechanical properties and structure of HDPE parts obtained by injection molding with the addition of chemical blowing agent was done. In order to enable the manufacturing of correctly made molded parts under given plasticizing conditions, other parameters (hold time and hold pressure, injection velocity and injection time) were also changed. It was found that making correct molded parts using decompression requires increased hold pressure and hold time. The share of the porous structure in the parts is inversely proportional to the decompression as well as the hold pressure and hold time, while the plasticizing pressure has little effect on thickness, mass, tensile strength and elongation at maximum force, however, it affects the structure of the molded parts to some extent.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Palutkiewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Postawa
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Wawrzyniak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation, 21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The study examined the impact of the angle of incidence of mechanical waves on various types of quasi one-dimensional superlattice. Binary periodic structure, quasi-periodic distribution of Thue-Morse layers and Severin’s aperiodic multilayer were used. Using the concatenation and recursive rules, the distribution of layers was determined for individual structure types for generation numbers equal to 3, 4 and 5. The structures were selected so that the thickness of the composite was the same for each type of distribution for a given generation number value. Transfer Matrix Method algorithm was used to determine reflectance. The band structure of reflectance has been demonstrated for incidence angles up to 90 degrees at mechanical wave frequencies up to 50 kHz. The existence of wide bands of high reflectance above the acoustic frequencies was demonstrated for the analyzed structures. Increasing the layer thickness caused an inhomogeneous shifts of transmission peaks towards lower frequencies.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Garus
1
ORCID: ORCID
W. Sochacki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Fundamentals of Machinery Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, 73 Dąbrowskiego Str., 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The article has been devoted to issues connected with socket fusion welding, which is next to welding one of the methods of thermoplastic polymers joining. In this paper, the research was presented, which the aim was analysis of quality of joints obtained as a result of resistance welding of polypropylene pipes with diameter ø20 in the temperature range of 200÷230°C. To that end a Testo thermal imaging camera was used, flexural strength of the combined components was tested as well as the received weld was observed under a stereoscopic microscope. Conducted studies showed that the best results of joint are obtained during welding at 220°C and 230°C, while lower temperatures did not fully perform their function during the process of joining the pipe elements.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kalwik
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Mordal
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Redutko
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation,21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of tests on dynamic stability of Bernoulli-Euler beam with damages. Damages (cracks) were modeled using three rotational springs. An analysis of the influence of crack depth and their position relative to the beam ends on dynamic stability of the beam was carried out. The problem of dynamic stability was solved by applying the mode summation method. Applying an orthogonal condition of eigenfunctions, the dynamic of the system was described with the use of the Mathieu equation. The obtained equation allowed the dynamic stability of the tested system to be analyzed. Stable and unstable solutions were analyzed using the Strutt card.
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Authors and Affiliations

W. Sochacki
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Garus
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Garus
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Fundamentals of Machinery Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, 73 Dąbrowskiego Str., 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The article has been devoted to issues connected with the alloplasty and hip joint endoprostheses, that elements are being developed, which is supported by strength, tribological tests on used biomaterials, incl. polyethylene or computer modelling based on e.g. finite element method (FEM). In this paper, the results of research on the impact of the material articulations of the system head – acetabular and friction conditions on strength parameters of polyethylene components in the hip joint endoprosthesis. Numerical analysis of this friction node was carried out, using the ADINA System computer program and the simulations were performed at various friction conditions for metal/ polyethylene and ceramic/ polyethylene articulations with various UHMWPE modifications. The simulations results have shown the influence of tested material associations and friction conditions on parameters related to the strength of polyethylene cups, i.e. their displacements, stresses and deformations.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Mordal
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Szarek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation,21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The subject of the study was to determine the impact of changes in mechanical properties of high-tin bronzes on the basic components of the sound of a bell. Change in the tin concentration in the range of about 7.5 to 20 parts wt. in a casting alloy significantly affects the mechanical properties of the alloy such as Young’s modulus or hardness. The free vibrations of bells were obtained with the help of the finite element method. In the numerical analyses the mechanical properties of standard alloys were adopted. The obtained natural frequencies of the bell made of a bronze with different tin concentration in copper were compared with the acoustic properties of a real bell casted on the basis of the same ribs. A significant effect of the increase in the alloying share of tin on the obtained results was stated. In addition, the acoustic analysis of aluminum bronze C95500 have been performed. Based on the obtained results, authors stated that this material can replace the commonly used high tin bronze C91300 for the unit production of bells.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Cekus
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nadolski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design Fundamentals, 73 Dąbrowskiego S tr., 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
  2. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

This work concerns the study of the coatings for the ultrasound frequency range as a quasi one-dimensional phononic crystal structure protecting a sea object against high resolution active sonar in the frequency range most commonly found for this type of equipment. The topology of the examined structure was optimized to obtain a band gap in the 2.2-2.3 MHz frequency band. For this purpose, a genetic algorithm was used, which allows for optimal distribution of individual elements of the ultrasound multilayer composite. By optimal distribution is meant to achieve a structure that will allow minimal reflectance in a given frequency range without height reflectance peaks with a small half width. Analysis of the wave propagation was made using the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). As part of the research, 15 and 20-layer structures with reflectance at the level of 0.23% and 0.18%, respectively, were obtained. Increasing the number of layers in the analyzed structures resulted in finding such a distribution in which a narrow band of low reflectance was obtained, such distributions could also be used as bandpass filters. The use of a genetic algorithm for designing allows to obtain modern coatings, the characteristics of which result from the structure.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Garus
1
ORCID: ORCID
W. Sochacki
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Garus
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.V. Sandu
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Fundamentals of Machinery Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, 73 Dąbrowskiego Str., 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
  2. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Blv d. D. Mangeron 71, 700050 lasi, Romania
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Abstract

In this paper one presents the new concept of a rocker-bogie suspension where the suspension members can change their length. As a result of this action the frame with suspension is able to adjust to the specific environmental conditions. The main problem with the designed suspension system is a fact that with an extension of the suspension members their slenderness increases as well as final displacements. The solution of this problem is not so simple because the construction must meet the specific requirements due to participation of the mobile platform in different competitions. In the presented results of numerical simulations one shows an influence of the different materials on stress and displacements magnitudes of suspension members when the mobile platform hits an obstacle. This situation allows one to test different engineering solutions in the worst case scenario when suspension elements may be damaged. Finally the optimum design is presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Sokół
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Pierzgalski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology , Department of Mechanics and Machine Design Foundations , 73 Dąbrowskiego Str., 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

Submitted work deals with the possibilities of reducing reoxidation by improved gating system design. The result of the reoxidation is the of furled oxide layers – bifilms. During experimental works, non-pressurized and naturally pressurized gating systems designs were introduced and evaluated. Mechanical properties, fracture area, hot tearing index, bifilm index and EDX analysis were used during evaluation. Paper aim is also to clarify the reoxidation phenomenon by visualization with the aid of ProCAST numerical simulation software. Achieved results clearly confirmed the positive effect of the naturally pressurized gating system, main emphasis needs to focus on finding the proper way to reduce the melt velocity. By using vortex element extension at the end of the runner was achieved positive results in term of reoxidation suppression.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Brůna
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Galčík
1
A. Sládek
1
D. Martinec
1

  1. University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Technological Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia
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Abstract

The article presents the results of model research concerning the change of technology of argon blowing into liquid steel at the ladle furnace, using the dual plug system. The results of numerical simulations were verified with experimental data carried out on the water model device. The verified model was used to perform numerical simulations to predict the impact of using a new gas injection technology – with different flow rates – on the time to achieve the assumed degree of metal chemical homogenization after alloy addition. Simulation results show that argon blowing metal bath in dual plug mode can effectively reduce mixing time compared to conventional technology with the same gas flow rates. Generally, the use of the dual plug system is beneficial for reducing the bath mixing time, however, the assumed optimal proportion of gas blown through individual plug should be followed. Finally, numerical predictions were used to perform experimental melt under industrial conditions. Industrial verification has clearly confirmed the validity of numerical modeling and showed that also in industrial conditions, a shorter time of chemical homogenization was obtained for the dual plug system.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Warzecha
1
A. Hutny
1
P. Warzecha
1
Z. Kutyła
2
T. Merder
3

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
  2. CMC Poland Sp. z o.o., 82 Piłsudskiego Str., 42-400 Zawiercie, Poland
  3. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, 8 Krasinskiego Str., 40-019 Katowice, Poland
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Abstract

Thermal spraying methods are commonly used to regenerate damaged surface or change materials surface properties. One of the newest methods is cold spraying, where coating is deposited of material in the solid state. Therefore shape and size of the powder particles are very important parameters. The article presents the influence of copper powder morphology on mechanical properties of the coatings (adhesion, hardness, Young’s modulus) deposited with the Low Pressure Cold Spraying method on the AA1350 aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings were deposited using two commercially available copper powders with spherical and dendritic morphology and granulation of –40+10 µm. The bond strength of coatings was determined with the pull off method, the hardness with the Vickers method at load of 2.94 N, while the Young’s modulus through measurement of nanoindentation. Microstructure of the coatings was analysed using the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Shape of the powder influences mechanical properties of the coating significantly. The coatings deposited with dendritic powder had low mechanical properties, hardness of the 81 HV0.3 order and adhesion of about 4 MPa. However changing powder morphology to spherical increased hardness of the coating to 180 HV0.3 and adhesion to 38.5 MPa.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Grygier
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Rutkowska-Gorczyca
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.G. Winnicki
2
ORCID: ORCID
T. Wojdat
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Vehicle Engineering, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
  2. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Metal Forming, Welding and Metrology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

TiAl based intermetallics are widely used for structural applications in aviation, chemical engineering, automotive and sports equipment. In this study, the electrical resistance sintering (ERS) technology used in the production of gamma-TiAl intermetallics is based on the principle of applying pressure simultaneously with a high-density electric current. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cyclic oxidation resistance of Ti-44Al-3Mo and Ti-44Al-3Nb alloys (at.%) and the applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling for the forecast of the oxidation behavior of these alloys. In order to obtain this aim, the alloys sintered by ERS were oxidized at 900°C for 360 h and then the oxidation behaviors of them are evaluated by plotting a graph between weight change as a function of time. The data collected after the oxidation experiments were used to construct the prediction models. The modelling results show that a good agreement between experimental results and prediction results was found. The oxidized alloys were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS. The XRD patterns revealed the oxidation products are composed of TiO2 and Al2O3 oxides. SEM-EDS analysis indicated that the oxide scales of alloys are made up of a multilayered structure.
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Authors and Affiliations

Y. Garip
1
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Garip
2
ORCID: ORCID
O. Ozdemir
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Sakarya Applied Science University, Technology Faculty , Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus, 54187, Sakarya -Turkey
  2. Sakarya Applied Science University, Technology Faculty, Department of Computer Engineering, Esentepe Campus, 54187, Sakarya -Turkey
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Abstract

The methods of making diamond tools have undergone a remarkable development since the invention of synthetic diamond in the mid-1950s. The current review summarises key historical, recent and ongoing trends and developments in sintered diamond tools. The report concentrates on tools used within the stone and construction industries which, being the main consumers of metal-bonded diamond tools fabricated by powder metallurgy (P/M) technology, have always fuelled advances in tool design and production technologies.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Konstanty
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH – University of Science & Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

The analysis of the development of the microstructure of deep drawn automotive B pillar, as well as the analysis of deformation based on numerical simulation and experiment, was performed. The microstructure of steel sheet as well as Al-Si coating after various stages of B pillar production was investigated. It was found that the obtained microstructure of the B pillar was significantly different from that described in many studies as a proper one. The microstructure of the investigated material consisted of martensite, bainite, and a small amount of ferrite. Al-Si coating, despite its morphological changes, remained on the surface of B pillar and, in spite of this, did not fully eliminate oxidation and decarburization of B pillar material. The analysis of the state of strain allowed to evaluate the deformation safety of the process, as well as to verify the simulation results through measurements of sheet thickness variations.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Paćko
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Krawczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Śleboda
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Frocisz
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Rumiński
1
ORCID: ORCID
O. Lypchanskyi
1
T. Tokarski
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Piasecki
2

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. Kirchhoff Automotive, Mielec, Poland
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Abstract

Growing awareness for occupational safety in the welding environment needs a sustainable welding system. Welding gases releases toxic tiny particles and gases that inflict severe health consequences in the weld zone are unsolicited. Some of the other main adverse effects are lung disease, hemoptysis, pulmonary inflammation, pneumoconiosis, etc. GMAW procedure has been used for welding 316L stainless steel plates of 3 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. Various current configurations with gas flow rate of 5 LPM, 10 LPM and 15 LPM were also used to achieve optimum butt joint performance and to reduce the production rate of fume contributing to cost-effectiveness. In this research a cost-effective fume extraction hood was fabricated for measuring Emission factor produced during welding. Various shielding gas compositions including Pure Argon, Pure CO2, 92% Ar+8% CO2 and 88% Ar+12% CO2 were used to determine the best operating parameters in the GMAW method. To satisfy the latest Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) legislation, optimum technical parameters for efficient welding were acknowledged with the lowest emission factor. A maximum reduction of Emission factor can be achieved by using Pure Argon. The inclusion of CO2 as a shielding gas mixture gives higher emission factor when compared to Pure Argon. Very low emission factor were witnessed in this research when compared to previous investigations. Lower emission factor of 2941.17 mg /kg of electrode, 4411.76 mg/kg of electrode and 7352.94 mg/kg of electrode were obtained for pure argon as shielding gas with 150 A welding current.
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Authors and Affiliations

K.V. Satheesh Kumar
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Selvakumar
2
ORCID: ORCID
K.R. Uvanshankar
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Thirunavukarasu
1
ORCID: ORCID
V. Vijay Anand
1
ORCID: ORCID
D. Vishal
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode- 638060, Tamilnadu, India
  2. Department of Chemistry, Vivekanandha College of Arts & Sciences for Women, Tiruchengode- 637205, Tamilnadu, India
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Abstract

In this investigation, Copper Matrix Surface Composites (CMSCs) were reinforced with various ceramic particles like Aluminum Nitrate (AlN), Titanium diboride (TiB2), and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) are used to increase the metallurgical and mechanical properties by Friction Stir Processing (FSP). The Design of the Experiment (DOE) Taguchi L9 orthogonal array method was used. The process parameters considered were groove width and various types of reinforcement particles. The fabrication of CMSCs was achieved by using optimized process parameters, such as the tool transverse speed of 40 mm/min, rotational tool speed of 1000 rpm, and an axial load of 10 kN with one pass. The influence of FSP process parameters on CMSCs in the stir zone is observed through Optical Microscope (OM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Mechanical properties such as microhardness and wear rate are studied and compared. It reveals that good interfacial bonding was produced between ceramic particles in CMSCs. TiB2 reinforced with copper matrix surface composites enhance microhardness and had a lesser wear rate.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Saravanakumar
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Gopalakrishnan
2
ORCID: ORCID
K. Kalaiselvan
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur, Tamilnadu, India
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, KS Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Tamilnadu, India
  3. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
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Abstract

The present research employs the statistical tool of Response surface methodology (RSM) to evaluate the machining characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated high-speed steel (HSS) tools. The methodology used for depositing carbon nanotubes was Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). Cutting speed, thickness of cut, and feed rate were chosen as machining factors, and cutting forces, cutting tooltip temperature, tool wear, and surface roughness were included as machining responses. Three-level of cutting conditions were followed. The face-centered, Central Composite Design (CCD) was followed to conduct twenty number of experiments. The speed of cutting and rate of feed have been identified as the most influential variables over the responses considered, followed by the thickness of cut. The model reveals the optimized level of cutting parameters to achieve the required objectives. The confirmation experiments were also carried out to validate the acceptable degree of variations between the experimental results and the predicted one.
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Authors and Affiliations

Chandru Manivannan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Selladurai Velappan
2
ORCID: ORCID
Venkatesh Chenrayan
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem – 636309, Tamilnadu, India
  2. Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore – 641014, Tamilnadu, India
  3. Adama Science and Technology University, Adama, Ethiopia
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Abstract

This paper deals with the subject of high temperature analysis of refining slags originating from a ladle from an actual/industrial secondary refining process. The objective of the conducted research was to learn about the rheological behaviour of the complex industrial slag systems analysed in conditions of variable rheological parameters and temperature, also analyses with a high-temperature microscope. The analysed system seems to be a Newtonian body (with viscosity between 0.1 and 0.8 Pa·s, depend on temperature value, and chemical composition).
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Ślęzak
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Karbowniczek
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Migas
1
ORCID: ORCID
W. Ślęzak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to characterize the changes in microstructure and chemical composition of the austenitic overlays on a pressure vessel steel that occur in the vicinity of the interface between the overlay and the base material. The investigations were carried out on a 16Mo3 boiler pipes weld overlaid by 309 and 310 steels. The microstructural examinations were performed on longitudinal cross-sectioned samples. The qualitative and quantitative chemical composition analyses on metallographic samples were determined on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) by means of Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS). The article analyzes the influence of the solidification sequence in both types of steel on final microstructure.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Rozmus-Górnikowska
1
S. Dymek
1
M. Blicharski
1
Ł. Cieniek
1
J. Kusiński
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

The presented article concerns the issue of supporting the ADI cast iron product manufacturing process and presents an IT system dedicated mainly to designers and technologists. Designers can be supported at the stage of selecting types of materials and technologies (including ADI cast iron) to produce products with required properties. Technologists can obtain support in determining the parameters (temperature and chemical) of the ADI cast iron manufacturing process in order to obtain products with specific properties. The system also contains an information resources (standards, documentation, examples) concerning ADI cast iron and products made of it. Examples of use by individual system users are presented as a case study.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Opaliński
1
ORCID: ORCID
D. Wilk-Kołodziejczyk
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Krakow Institute of Technology, 73 Zakopiańska Str., 30-418 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

Heat consumption and steel loss for scale determine the costs of a heating process. The heating rate influences both. This paper evaluates the heating rate of a long charge made of three various materials, depending on the changes of the furnace atmosphere on the rotary furnace circumference. Numerical computing was performed based on a formulated heat transfer model in the rotary furnace chamber, while considering the growth of the scale layer. One heating curve was selected, which has allowed the heating time to be reduced by 36% while limiting the scale loss by 40%. It was also shown that the thermal stresses and strains should not lead to fractures of the charge heated.
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Authors and Affiliations

B. Hadała
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Rywotycki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Malinowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sz. Kajpust
2
S. Misiowiec
2

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. Zarmen FPA Sp. z o.o., 39 Filarskiego Str., 47-330, Zdzieszowice, Poland

Instructions for authors

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science. Papers with focus on synthesis, processing and properties of metal materials, including thermodynamic and physical properties, phase relations, and their relation to microstructure of materials are of particular interest.

Submissions to Archives of Metallurgy and Materials should clearly present aspects of novelty of findings, originality of approach etc. If modeling is presented it should be logically connected to experimental evidence. Submissions which just report the results without in depth analysis and discussion will not be published.

Submission of a manuscript implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.

Authors of review type manuscripts are requested to send such manuscripts to Editor-in-Chief for preliminary evaluation. Only manuscripts approved by the Editor-in-Chief can be submitted to the journal for further processing. This does not guarantee acceptance for publication since all

manuscripts are subject to regular review procedure.

When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:

1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via www.editorialsystem.com/amm/. Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.

1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000)

1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.

1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word

Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.

1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.

1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:

Author(s) with first names in full.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).

Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.

Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.

All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.

Appendices

References

Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author.

Figure captions

Tables

2. Manuscript preparation

2.1. Formulae, equations and units

Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).

Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.

2.4. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/ or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket). Use of DOI is strongly encouraged.

Samples:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015).

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015).

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8] https://www.nist.gov/programs-projects/crystallographic-databases, accessed: 17.04.2017

Academic thesis (PhD, MSc):

[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process

All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing.

Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary.

Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 14 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days

4.3 Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

Additional info

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is covered by the following services:


Arianta, Baidu Scholar, BazTech, Celdes, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - CAplus, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Current Contents/Engineering, Computing, and Technology, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Materials Science Citation Index, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Science Citation Index Expanded, CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), CNPIEC, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO (relevant databases), EBSCO Discovery Service, Elsevier - SCOPUS, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, J-Gate, JournalTOCs, KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders), Microsoft Academic, Naviga (Softweco), Primo Central (ExLibris), ProQuest (relevant databases), ReadCube, ResearchGate, SCImago (SJR), Sherpa/RoMEO, Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest), TDNet, TEMA Technik und Management, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb, WanFang Data, WorldCat (OCLC)

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