ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess (PAN Electronic Library, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; optimization methods; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering;renewable energy; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.
Journal Impact Factor: 2022 – 1.3, Five Year – 0.9
CiteScore metrics from Scopus, CiteScore 2022: 2.4
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2022: 0.325
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2022: 0.743
ICI Journal Master List 2022, Index Copernicus Value: 121.38
Scoring assigned by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education: 100 points
A new double stator permanent magnet machine having two sets of alternating current (AC) windings in separate stators is proposed in this study. The proposed machine is appropriate for low-speed direct-drive applications. 2D- and 3D-finite element analysis (FEA) is adopted in the result predictions. The considered machine elements are: coil and phase flux linkage, coil and phase induced-electromotive force (EMF), copper loss, current density and torque characteristics. The analysis shows that the studied permanent magnet (PM) machine has better electromagnetic performance than its single-stator equivalent. Moreover, the proposed machine has potential for higher reliability if the separate stators are used independently. The effect of design parameters on open-circuit flux linkage and induced-electromotive force, as well as on the average electromagnetic torque of the proposed double stator machine is also presented. It is observed that for each of the investigated design variables, there is a need to select the optimal value in order to achieve the best average torque. The investigated design parameters are: the split ratio, magnet thickness, rotor radial thickness, inner stator tooth-width, rotor inner and outer iron-width/pitch ratio, and stator yoke size.
Magnetic hysteresis occurs in most electrical engineering devices once soft ferromagnetic materials are exposed to relatively high temperatures. According to several scientific studies, magnetic properties are strongly influenced by temperature. The development of models that can accurately describe the thermal effect on ferromagnetic materials is still an issue that inspires researchers. In this paper, the effect of temperature on magnetic hysteresis for ferromagnetic materials is investigated using a self-developed numerical method based on the Preisach distribution function identification. It employs a parameter depending on both temperature and the Curie temperature. This approach is of the macroscopic phenomenological type, where the variation of the magnetization (in direct connection with the Preisach triangle) is related to the observed macroscopic hysteretic behavior. The isotropic character of the material medium is predominant. The technique relies on a few experimental data extracted from the first magnetization curve provided by metallurgists. The ultimate goal is to provide a simple and robust magnetic behavior modeling tool for designers of electrical devices. Temperature is introduced at the stage of identifying the distribution function of the Preisach model. This method is validated by the agreement between the experimental data and the simulation results. The developed method is very accurate and efficient in modeling the hysteresis of ferromagnetic materials in engineering particularly for systems with ferromagnetic components and electromagnetic-thermal coupling.
Climate change is driving the transformation of energy systems from fossil to renewable energies. In industry, power supply systems and electro-mobility, the need for electrical energy storage is rising sharply. Lithium-based batteries are one of the most widely used technologies. Operating parameters must be determined to control the storage system within the approved operating limits. Operating outside the limits, i.e., exceeding or falling below the permitted cell voltage, can lead to faster aging or destruction of the cell. Accurate cell information is required for optimal and efficient system operation. The key is high-precision measurements, sufficiently accurate battery cell and system models, and efficient control algorithms. Increasing demands on the efficiency and dynamics of better systems require a high degree of accuracy in determining the state of health and state of charge (SOC). These scientific contributions to the above topics are divided into two parts. In the first part of the paper, a holistic overview of the main SOC assessment methods is given. Physical measurement methods, battery modeling, and the methodology of using the model as a digital twin of a battery are addressed and discussed. In addition, adaptive methods and artificial intelligence methods that are important for SOC calculation are presented. Part two of the paper presents examples of the application areas and discusses their accuracy.
Aiming at the problem of DC voltage control deviation and instability caused by a large-scale renewable energy access VSC–MTDC system, this paper combines voltage margin control and droop control. A strategy for controlling collaborative optimization in a sparsely distributed communication network has been proposed. Firstly, the distributed modeling of the system is carried out by combining MAS technology with small signal modeling. Then, a distributed model predictive controller is designed for a single droop control converter station. On this basis, a distributed cooperative optimization control strategy is proposed. According to the DC voltage deviation, the system adopts different control methods to control the receiving converter station. Finally, based on PSCAD/EMTDC and MATLAB co-simulation platforms, a six-terminal flexible HVDC system is built to verify the effectiveness of the control strategy under different conditions such as input power fluctuation, any converter station out of operation and system communication failure.
The model predictive current control (MPCC) of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is highly dependent on motor parameters, and a parameter mismatch will cause the system performance degradation. Therefore, a strategy based on an internal model control (IMC) observer is proposed to correct the mismatch parameters. Firstly, based on the MPCC strategy of the PMSM, according to the dynamic model of the PMSM in a rotating orthogonal coordinate system,
q-axis current IMC observers are designed, and the stability derivation is carried out. It is proved that the observer can estimate
q-axis disturbance components caused by a parameter mismatch without static error. Then, the estimated disturbance component is compensated for by the reference voltage prediction expression. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified in two different conditions. The experimental results show that the proposed control strategy can effectively compensate for the parameter mismatch disturbance in MPCC for PMSM, improve the dynamic and static performance of the system, and improve the robustness of the system.
The neutral point clamped (NPC) three-level grid-tied converter is the key equipment connecting renewable energy and power grids. The current sensor fault caused by harsh environment may lead to the split of renewable energy. The existing sensor fault-tolerant methods will reduce the modulation ratio index of the converter system. To ensure continuous operation of the converter system and improve the modulation index, a model predictive control method based on reconstructed current is proposed in this paper. According to the relationship between fault phase current and a voltage vector, the original voltage vector is combined and classified. To maintain the stable operation of the converter and improve the utilization rate of DC voltage, two kinds of fault phase current are reconstructed with DC current, normal phase current and predicted current, respectively. Based on reconstructed three-phase current, a current predictive control model is designed, and a model predictive control method is proposed. The proposed method selects the optimal voltage vector with the cost function and reduces time delay with the current reconstruction sector. The simulation and experimental results showthat the proposed strategy can keep the NPC converter running stably with one AC sensor, and the modulation index is increased from 57.7% to 100%.
The operating temperature of the transmission line in the traction network is affected by geographical and climatic factors, especially the wind speed. To make better use of the thermal stability transmission capacity of the traction power supply system in improving the short-term emergency transmission capacity, the dynamic rating technology is introduced into the traction power supply system. According to the time-varying characteristics of the actual wind speed, a dynamic rating method of the traction network based on wind speed prediction is proposed and constructed. Based on the time series model in predicting the wind speed series along the corridor of the traction network, the temperature curve of each transmission line under different currents is calculated by combining it with the heat balance equation of an IEEE-738 capacity expansion model, thus the relationship between the peak operating temperature and current of each transmission line in the prediction period is obtained. According to the current distribution coefficient, the capacity increase limit of the traction network is determined. The example shows that the proposed dynamic rating method based on wind speed prediction is an effective method to predict the short-term safe capacity increase limit of the traction network, which can increase the comprehensive capacity of the traction network by about 45% in the next six hours, and the capacity increase effect is obvious, which can provide reference and technical support for short-term emergency dispatching of traction power supply dispatching centres.
This paper proposes a power system stabilizer (PSS) with optimal controller parameters for damping low-frequency power oscillations in the power system. A novel meta-heuristic, weighted grey wolf optimizer (WGWO) has been proposed, it is a variant of the grey wolf optimizer (GWO). The proposed WGWO algorithm has been executed in the selection of controller parameters of a PSS in a multi-area power system. A two-area fourmachine test system has been considered for the performance evaluation of an optimally tuned PSS. A multi-objective function based on system eigenvalues has been minimized for obtained optimal controller parameters. The damping characteristics and eigenvalue location in the proposed approach have been compared with the other state-of-the-art methods, which illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
The mismatch effect of photovoltaic (PV) arrays due to different illumination intensity has a significant impact on the output characteristics and output power of PV arrays, which is crucial to understand the output characteristics of PV arrays and optimize the array configuration in order to improve the value of the maximum power point. This paper illustrates the short-circuit current mismatch of series circuits, and the open-circuit voltage mismatch of parallel circuits and proposes corresponding solutions for each mismatch phenomenon. The output characteristics of multi-stage series PV arrays and multi-stage parallel PV arrays under complex illumination are analyzed by using the peak point approximation calculation method, and the distribution law of peak voltage points as well as the
I-V (Current-Voltage) characteristic equation of each operating section are proposed. On this basis, the output characteristics of 3 x 3 centralized PV arrays are analyzed and verified by simulation. By comparing series and parallel PV arrays with the same condition, as well as several groups of centralized PV arrays with the same topology and different types of illumination distribution, this paper proposes a configuration optimization method for PV arrays. Matlab/Simulink simulation results confirm that the output power of parallel arrays is greater than that of series arrays under the same configuration and illuminationt distribution type, and the peak point is less than that of series arrays under the same configuration and lighting conditions; while in centralized PV arrays, the fewer series modules are shaded, the greater the output power and the less the peak point.
A Computational Intelligence (CI) approach is one of the main trending and potent data dealing out and processing instruments to unravel and resolve difficult and hard reliability crisis and it takes an important position in intelligent reliability analysis and management of data. Nevertheless, just few little broad reviews have recapitulated the current attempts of Computational Intelligence (CI) in reliability assessment in power systems. There are many methods in reliability assessment with the aim to prolong the life cycles of a system, to maximize profit and predict the life cycle of assets or systems within an organization especially in electric power distribution systems. Sustaining an uninterrupted electrical energy supply is a pointer of affluence and nationwide growth. The general background of reliability assessment in power system distribution using computational intelligence, some computational intelligence techniques, reliability engineering, literature reviews, theoretical or conceptual frameworks, methods of reliability assessment and conclusions was discussed. The anticipated and proposed technique has the aptitude to significantly reduce the needed period for reliability investigation in distribution networks because the distribution network needs an algorithm that can evaluate, assess, measure and update the reliability indices and system performance within a short time. It can also manage outages data on assets and on the entire system for quick and rapid decisions making as well as can prevent catastrophic failures. Those listed above would be taken care of if the proposed method is utilized. This overview or review may be deemed as valuable assistance for anybody doing research.
The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the main method of electrical harmonic analysis since it’s easily realized in an embedded system. But there were some difficulties in performing synchronized sampling. The spectral leakage caused by asynchronous sampling affects the accuracy of harmonics analysis. Using window functions and interpolation algorithms can improve the accuracy of harmonics analysis. An approach for electrical harmonic analysis based on the interpolation DFT was proposed. A window function reduces DFT leakage and the interpolation algorithm modifies the calculation results of frequency, amplitude and the initial phase angle. The simulation results indicate that, by using the interpolation DFT electrical harmonic analysis method based on the Hanning window or the Blackman window, the error of calculating amplitudes and frequencies is not greater than 0.5%.
When the in-wheel motor is working, it will be affected by gravity, centrifugal force and electromagnetic force. These three kinds of mechanical loads will affect the mechanical stress characteristics of the in-wheel motor, and then affect the reliability of the in-wheel motor structure. In order to understand the influence of the above loads on the mechanical stress of the in-wheel motor, this paper takes a 15-kWbuilt-in permanent magnet in-wheel motor as the research object. Based on the establishment of the electromagnetic field and structure field coupling analysis model of the in-wheel motor, the mechanical stress of the in-wheel motor under different mechanical loads under rated and peak conditions are calculated and analyzed, and the influence of different mechanical loads on the stress and deformation of the in-wheel motor are studied. The research results show that, regardless of the rated operating condition or the peak operating condition, the in-wheel motor has the largest mechanical stress and deformation under the combined action of centrifugal force and electromagnetic force, and the smallest mechanical stress and deformation under the action of gravity only; under the same load (except for the case of gravity only), the stress and deformation of the in-wheel motor under the peak operating condition are larger than those under the rated operating condition; and the maximum stress and deformation of the in-wheel motor appear at the rotor magnetic bridge and the inner edge of the rotor, respectively, so the rotor is an easily damaged part of the in-wheel motor.
The development in industrial systems leads to the augmentation in the consumption of the power. Therefore, this development makes use of multiphase machines. The use of multiphase machines caused several problems and defects. Electrical energy is mainly distributed in a three-phase system to provide the electrical power necessary for the electrical engineering equipment and materials. The sinusoidal aspect of the required original voltage primarily preserves its essential qualities for transmitting useful power to terminal equipment. When the voltage waveform is no longer sinusoidal, perturbations are encountered, which generate malfunctions and overheating of the receivers and the equipment connected to the same electrical supply network. The main disturbing phenomena are harmonics, voltage fluctuations, voltage unbalances, electromagnetic fields, and electrostatic discharges. This present work aims to study the effects of harmonic pollution and voltage unbalance on the five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine using spectrum current analysis and wavelet transform.
Diode neutral point clamped (NPC) three-level converters have been widely used in recent years. Aiming at the problems of the high device failure rate and unstable neutral point potential of NPC three-level converters, an NPC three-level circuit with fourth bridge arm redundancy is proposed based on the traditional NPC three-level converter. The redundant fourth bridge arm is used to realize the function of stabilizing voltage when there is no fault and replacing the fault half-bridge arm to maintain the continuous operation of the converter when there is a fault. By analyzing the working principle of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the power loss of the switch, it is of particular significance to the design and control of NPC three-level converters in the future. Matlab/Simulink verifies the feasibility of the fault-tolerant circuit structure.
Complex gaps may be formed when carrying out live working in substations, while the discharge characteristics of complex gaps are different from those of single gaps. This paper focuses on the prediction of critical 50% positive switching impulse breakdown voltage (
U50crit + of phase-to-phase complex gaps formed in 220 kV substations. Firstly, several electric field features were defined on the shortest discharge path of the complex gap to reflect the electric field distribution. Then support vector machine (SVM) prediction models were established according to the connection between electric field distribution and breakdown voltage. Finally, the
U50crit¸+ data of the complex gap were obtained through twice electric field calculations and predictions. The prediction results show that the minimum
U50crit + of phase-to-phase complex gaps is 1147 kV, and the critical position is 0.9 m away from the high voltage conductor, accounting for 27% of the whole gap. Both critical position and voltage are in good agreement with the values provided in IEC 61472.
The aim of the considerations presented in the article was a stand-alone groundbased photovoltaic power plant. The article is devoted to the qualitative analysis of some lightning protection configurations. These types of constructions often require an individual look at the design and execution of lightning protection installations, which causes problems with the selection of optimal solutions. These problems relate primarily to the way the lightning rods are arranged to create protection zones, but also to the way they are attached: to the supporting structure for PV modules or as free-standing. Another problem raised in the article is the way how lightning current is discharged from rods to the ground and how it is dispersed there. Due to the vast area of such facilities and the requirements for electrical safety, it is necessary to consider and design a ground system with optimal electrical parameters, but also technical and economic ones. All these elements have their impact on the value of voltages induced in the electrical installation, which is also presented in the content of the article as the magnetic field distribution and calculation of induced voltages in an exemplary configuration. Finally, this article will compare described technical solutions encountered in selecting the best protection method for this type of photovoltaic installation.
Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Poland
Instructions for authors
ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.
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Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:
 Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
 Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).
 Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.
 Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.
 Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
 Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).
Book, book chapter and manual
 Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).
 Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).
 Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).
 Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).
 Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).
 Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).
 http://www.aee.put.poznan.pl, accessed April 2010.
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