Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Water and Land Development


Journal of Water and Land Development | 2009 | No 13B |

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Views on the objectives and role of water management have remarkably changed in the last years. The need of a complex water management that would consider all water users including agriculture and natural environment is often underlined. It is pointed out that agriculture and natural environment (including commercial forests) are basic consumers of precipitation water which is not considered in water and economic balances. More and more importance is attributed to the utilisation of waters from catchment basin and to application of non-technical measures of controlling water cycles. A large impact of agro-ecosystems and natural or semi-natural (forests, wetlands) ecosystems on water balance is underlined. This different approach to the problems of water management is expressed e.g. in Water Framework Directive of European Union devoted to surface and ground water protection. The directive attributes a great role to the protection of aquatic and water related ecosystems. More and more often it is realised that the total water resources are equal to the volume of atmospheric precipitation. Water management should involve not only the water in geological aquifers or river channels but also that which is retained in soil profile. Such elements of water balance as spatial distribution, interception, infiltration and recharge of ground water reservoirs, soil retention capacity, surface runoff and evapotranspiration depend largely on land use in a catchment. Through appropriate land use and catchment management, application of rational agro-technical methods, development of small retention, wetland restoration, and hampering water outflow from draining systems one may significantly affect water cycling in a catchment.

Small water resources of Poland, increasing water consumption, climate changes and requirements of environmental protection enforce the implementation of complex methods of water management and search for environmental-friendly methods of limiting economic losses caused by water deficit or excess. Saving water used for economic purposes and agriculture would permit better fulfilment of the needs of natural environment.

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Authors and Affiliations

Waldemar Mioduszewski
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Uncertainties as to how the climate will change and how it will influence the necessities and trends of irrigation development lead to a number of serious questions to be answered in the near future. How irrigation and water systems will have to adapt to climate changes is a challenge that planners, designers and O&M services will have to cope with.

It is widely accepted that air temperature in Poland will increase of 2–4°C, however a total yearly precipitation will not vary yet its pattern during the year may change towards higher in winter and lower in summer. Evapotranspiration and crop water demand may rise due to both an increase in temperature and duration of crop growth cycles.

Three main factors are expected to exert an accelerating influence on the development of irrigation: increased frequency and intensity of droughts and long-lasting precipitation-free periods with the high insolation and high air temperatures resulting from climate change; the intensification of agricultural production (e.g. in horticulture, orchards, seed crops), being forced by both domestic and European free-market competition; the necessity of reaching high level of quality for the majority of agricultural products.

To mitigate negative effects of climate change and extreme events, appropriate adaptation methods and adaptation strategies should be developed and implemented in existing irrigation and water control systems. A number of technological and organisational steps should be taken to improve operation, management, administration and decision making processes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Leszek Łabędzki
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In the projects of protection of soil-water environment there is a need to combine and process large amount of information from various disciplines to estimate parameters of phenomena and to determine the range and time table of necessary undertakings.

Due to complex assessment of processes taking place in aquifers, mathematical modeling is the best tool supporting evaluation off pollution in the ground water environment. It is also an effective method of forecasting the risk associated with the harmful impact of objects polluting grounds and grounds waters.

Significant application of mathematical modeling is the use for the enlargement of information gathered in the process of recognition and assessment of condition that prevail in soil-water environment. Results of modeling, if appropriately presented, could be an important element of decision support system in environmental management.

This paper describes procedures for developing an environmental remediation decision support system by linking CADD and GIS software with the hydro geological flow and transport models.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Ślesicki
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The runoff coefficient is one of the fundamental hydrological characteristics of a catchment. It indicates a share of the precipitation water that runs off from the catchment.

The results of the runoff coefficient calculation based on measurements carried out continuously in the Cerhovický Stream catchment over a considerable period of time, i.e. from 1988 up to 2006 are presented. The precipitation and runoff data in the catchment were used. Mean value of the runoff coefficient and the runoff coefficients for the agricultural and forest parts of the catchment are presented. The total mean runoff coefficient for the Cerhovický Stream is 0.19 with the standard deviation of 0.06. Mean runoff coefficient for the forest part is 0.13 and for the agricultural part – 0.24.

Differences between the years with a higher and a lower precipitation were followed as well. We also statistically evaluated possible hydrological changes caused by the construction of the highway and the market centre. For another possible explanation of quite high standard deviation of the mean annual runoff coefficient we followed the monthly runoff coefficient dependence on water temperature and of ground water table depth.

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Authors and Affiliations

Martina Vlčková
Marek Nechvátal
Mojmír Soukup
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In order to help develop a better understanding of relevant catchment processes, this paper presents the changes in physico-chemical features of the Wieprz River water during the spring snowmelt flood of 2006. The obtained results showed that the groundwater sampled from the springs and the water sampled from the river had a similar and quite stable composition of the basic physicochemical features in the period of solely groundwater feeding (the river is fed only with the water coming from underground sources). The physico-chemical composition of river water during snowmelt depended on the contribution of surface runoff in total outflow and the flood phase. The correlation coefficients between the discharge in the Wieprz River and the concentrations in the studied indices were significantly negative: pH, SEC, HCO3, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, SiO2, Cl, SO4, F. Significantly positive correlations associated with an increase in discharge were observed in the case of: K, NO3, NO2, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. Step and bidirectional responses were noted during the snowmelt flood in the case of the content of NH4 and PO4.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Chmiel
Ewa Maciejewska
Zdzisław Michalczyk
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Almost half (47%) of Latvian forest areas (3611 thousand ha) are considered degraded or partly improved by the hydro-technical drainage. The degradation is caused by very poor soil aeration due to waterlogged conditions. The location of waterlogged forests in Latvia is neither uniform nor occasional. Comparison of the abundance of waterlogged forests and the amount of atmospheric precipitation showed that the waterlogged forests are mainly located in areas with least precipitation. This hydrological phenomenon is connected with water discharge in drainage ditches: even during the dry summers of the years 1963, 1964, 1975, 1976 and 2002 in the drained forests with deep peat soils water flowed continuously in 1 m deep ditches and the discharge exceeded the amount of precipitation. Using the data from 182 sample plots in drained forests with the peat layer depth of 4.2 m, it was found, that coniferous forests are most productive in areas where the peat layer is most dense. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the most intensive paludification and formation of most dense peat layer are characteristic for the areas with intensive water discharge from confined aquifers. This discharge provides necessary mineral nutrients for the forest soil regardless of the peat layer thickness. The forest productivity may increase several times due to the enhancement of water movement in soil and to improved soil aeration by hydro-technical drainage. Also the flow regime of rivers connected with the drained areas changes considerably, mitigating extremely high and low flow events.

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Authors and Affiliations

Peteris Zalitis
Aigars Indriksons
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Premises for the construction of balance equations of water reserves in the saturation zone of forest soil are presented in this paper. Changes of soil water reserves are dealt with as an effect of the atmosphere-tree stand-soil balance at the assumption of constant ground water flow and negligibly small losses for infiltration down the soil profile below saturation zone. These assumptions are met in permeable lowland forest soils, particularly in areas where the aquifer is situated on relatively shallow impermeable substratum. Then, for snow-free periods, it is possible to: 1) combine the increment of soil water reserves with precipitation above tree crowns and with plant and litter interception and 2) combine the losses of soil water reserves with plant transpiration and evaporation from the soil surface. The periods of increments and losses of soil water reserves are determined from limnigraph records of ground water table depth in piesometers. Examples are given in the paper of equations identified by long term data from 13 soil profiles localised in pine forests on Pleistocene floodplain of the Dunajec River. The data included: ground water table depth, physical properties of grounds in soil profiles, and hydro-climatic conditions. The equations combine increments and losses of water reserves in the saturation zone with rainfall and deficits of air humidity measured on a midforest meadow.

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Authors and Affiliations

Józef Suliński
Krzysztof Owsiak
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The Włodawka River catchment of an area of 725 km2 covers the central and eastern part of the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District. Evaluation of the role of hydrogenic areas in runoff creation was based on materials of the Department of Hydrography and the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management data. The analysis was conducted for selected catchments in which additional hydrometric measurements and water quality tests were done. Such parameters as: the share of hydrogenic surfaces in total catchment area, types of wetlands, their hypsometric location and position with reference to drainage streams were taken into consideration for evaluation. The degree of anthropogenic transformation of the marshland was expressed in terms of density and depth of the drainage ditches that dissect it. It was found that the drained gyttja of Krowie Bagno plays a considerable role in increasing the minimum discharge. Wetlands in the Włodawka River catchment influence the conditions of the runoff and water quality, which is noticeable, primarily, in the concentration of organic carbon, and of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Turczyński
Zdzisław Michalczyk
Stanisław Chmiel
Katarzyna Mięsiak-Wójcik
Sławomir Głowacki
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Some areas intended for afforestation are characterised by a lack of moisture and mineral nutrients. One of the approaches to improve water retention capacity of soils is the use of hydrogels (polymer soil conditioners). The presented experiment was performed with 4 different methods of hydrogel applications and control in a post-industrial area – a dumping ground of the Brown Coal Mine Bełchatów (Forest District Administration Bełchatów). The Aquaterra product (pure hydrogel) and hydrogel with nutrients (TerraVit) produced by Terra-Gubin company were used in all experiments. From 292 to 306 one-year old seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. of an average height of 80–101 mm were planted in each plot. The influence of hydrogel application method on successful afforestation and growth of seedling was analyzed after the first vegetation year. Maximum number of surviv seedlings (93.3%) was observed for hydrogel applied through roots coating, minimum (72.4%) for hydrogel with fertilizers applied under plants. Results obtained for pure hydrogel surface application (89.1%) and pure hydrogel applied under plants (85.3%) can be compared with results from control plot (89.7%). Mean heights of surviving seedlings were similar (128–130 mm) for root coating, and both methods of hydrogel application under plants, in contrast with surficial hydrogel application (117 mm) and control where they were minimal (111 mm). Mean height increments in surviving seedlings were minimum in control plot (31 mm), and similar (38–40 mm) for root coating and surface application. The best results of height increments (47 mm) were obtained when hydrogel mixed with fertiliser was applied under plants. To sum up, in view of plant survival the best method of polymer soil conditioner (hydrogel) application was root coating; this method gave also satisfactory increments of plant height.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wiesław Ptach
Andrzej Boczoń
Michał Wróbel
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The aim of this study was to delimit lacustrine deposits underlaying present peatlands. On this basis, the location of water bodies in late Pleistocene and early Holocene was recognized. The lakes’ occurrence was presented on the background of geomorphological conditions. Lacustrine deposits occur mainly in depressions of the northern part of the Knyszyńska Forest. They are placed in upper parts of the Czapielówka River, Jałówka River, middle Sokołda River and upper Kumiałka River catchments. The thickness of gyttja varies between 0.4 and 2.5 m. These are detrital, calcareous and clay-calcareous gyttjas. Lacustrine sediments fill the bottoms of various meltout depressions. The origin of these depressions, as well as the whole glacial relief of the terrain, is often linked to deglaciation of the Warta ice sheet. However, kame deposits in the Janów village are younger than Warta glaciation. Moreover, the catchment relief of the upper Kumiałka River is similar to the relief which originates from Vistulian glaciation. Besides, there are boulder deposits directly under the lacustrine deposits. These three facts indicate a younger age of the melt-out depressions in the upper Kumiałka River catchment.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Micun
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During the past several years big changes have been observed in waste water disposal, noticeable particularly in the improvement of water protection and sewage treatment. An important element of waste water disposal still requiring improvement is a low development of sewage systems in rural and urban areas. The main problem is an increasing amount of sludge, high degree of sediment hydration and considerable ability to anaerobic decomposition, a lack of areas for managing sediments near big cities and deposits of sediments on storage areas. Selected issues of waste water disposal and sludge handling in the Mazovian Province against a background of waste water disposal and sludge handling in Poland were presented in the article.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hanna Bauman-Kaszubska
Mikołaj Sikorski

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Authors should submit manuscripts via the Editorial Board ( Editorial system - Submit Your Manuscript )

1. "Journal of Water and Land Development” is published four times a year in English, articles are followed by a short (not exceeding 200 words) summary in Polish.
2. Conciseness of style is a prequisite, avoid verbose phrases and abvious statements. Manuscript should not exceed 1 printing sheet (20 standard pages of 1800 characters per page). Tables, figures and short summary should be typed at the end of the paper on separate pages.
3. Each article should contain the following elements: title, name and surname of the author(s), authors' affiliation, short abstract no longer than 150–200 words, key words, text of the paper divided into Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion, References (arranged in alphabetic order as shown below) and summary in Polish BENCALA K.E., WALTERS R.A. 1983. Simulation of solute transport in mountain pool-and riffle stream: a transient storage model. Water Resources Research. Vol. 19 p. 718–724. GÓRECKI A. 1987. Rozpoznanie i opis sztucznych pól odniesień przestrzennych [Recognition and description of the artificial plots of spatial relations]. Manuscript. Wrocław. Uniwersytet Wrocławski pp. 18. JANKOWSKI M. 2006. Elementy grafiki komputerowej [Elements of the computer graphics]. Warszawa. WNT. ISBN 8320431638 pp. 220. STRZELECKI T. 1994. Rola systemów informacji geograficznej w zarządzaniu państwem, województwem i gminą. W: Komputerowe wspomaganie badań naukowych [The role of GIS in the management of the state, voivodship and community. In: Computer aided research]. I Konferencja Środowiskowa. Wrocław. Wrocławskie Towarzystwo Naukowe p. 19–25. Papers referred to should be quoted in the text as KOWALSKI [1997], [KOWALSKI, NOWAK 1997]. If there are more than two authors, please add et al. after the first name i.e. NOWAK et al. [1997]. English version of the non-congress language title should be added in brackets.
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Publication Ethics Policy


Editors of the "Journal of Water and Land Development" pay attention to maintain ethical standards in scientific publications and undertake any possible measure to counteract neglecting the standards. Papers submitted for publication are evaluated with respect to reliability, conforming to ethical standards and the advancement of science. Principles given below are based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, which may be found at:

Authors’ duties

Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Author should disclose all sources of financing of his/her study, the input of scientific institutions, associations and other subjects and all important conflicts of interests that might affect results and interpretation of the study.

Standards in reporting
Authors of papers based on original studies should present precise description of performed work and objective discussion on its importance. Source data should be accurately presented in the paper. The paper should contain detailed information and references that would enable others to use it. False or intentionally not true declarations are not ethical and are not accepted by the editors.

Access to and storage of data
Authors may be asked for providing raw data used in the paper for editorial assessment and should be prepared to store them within the reasonable time period after publication.

Multiple, unnecessary and competitive publications
As a rule author should not publish papers describing the same studies in more than one journal or primary publication. Submission of the same paper to more than one journal at the same time is not ethical and prohibited.

Confirmation of sources
Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

Important errors in published papers
When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.

Originality and plagiarism
Author may submit only original papers. He/she should be certain that the names of authors referred to in the paper and/or fragments of their texts are properly cited or mentioned.

Ghost writing/guest authorship are manifestation of scientific unreliability and all such cases will be revealed including notification of appropriate subjects. Signs of scientific unreliability, especially violation of ethical principles in science will be documented by the Editorial Office.

Duties of the Editorial Office

Editors’ duties
Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.

Decisions on publication
Editor-in Chief is obliged to apply present legal status as to defamation, violation of author’s rights and plagiarism and bears the responsibility for decisions. He/she may consult thematic editors and/or referees in that matter.

Selection of referees
Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).

Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.

To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.

Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

Objectivity standards
Reviews should be objective. Personal criticism is inappropriate. Referees should clearly ex-press their opinions and support them with proper arguments.

All reviewed papers should be dealt with as confidential. They should not be discussed or revealed to persons other than the secretary of the Editorial Office.

All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

Confirmation of sources
Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

Peer-review Procedure

Reviewing procedure

Procedure of reviewing submitted papers agrees with recommendations of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education published in a booklet: „Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce”.

Reviewing form may be downloaded from the Journal’s web page.

1.Papers submitted to the Editorial Office are primarily verified by editors withrespect to merit and formal issues. Texts with obvious errors (formatting other than requested, missing references, evidently low scientific quality) will be rejected at this stage.
2.Primarily accepted papers are sent to the two independent referees from outside the author’s institution, who:
  • have no conflict of interests with the author,
  • are not in professional relationships with the author,
  • are competent in a given discipline and have at least doctor’s degree and respective scientific achievements,
  • have unblemished reputation as reviewers.
3.In case of papers written in foreign language, at least one referee is affiliated in a foreign institution other than the author’s nationality.
4.Reviewing proceeds in the double blind process (authors and reviewers do notknow each other’s names) recommended by the Ministry.
5.A number is attributed to the paper to identify it in further stages of editorial procedure.
6.Potential referee obtains summary of the text and it is his/her decision upon accepting/rejecting the paper for review within a given time period.
7.Referees are obliged to keep opinions about the paper confidential and to not use knowledge about it before publication.
8.Review must have a written form and end up with an explicit conclusion about accepting or rejecting the paper from publication. Referee has a possibility to conclude his/her opinion in a form:
  • accept without revision;
  • accept with minor revision;
  • accept after major revision,
  • re-submission and further reviewing after complete re-arrangement of the paper,
  • reject.
9.Referee sends the review to the journal “Woda-Środowisko-Obszary Wiejskie”and “Problemy Inżynierii Rolniczej”by e-mail and in the printed undersigned form to the Editorial Office. Referee sends the review to the “Journal of Water and Land Development”by Editorial System. The review is archived there for 5 years.
10.Editors do not accept reviews, which do not conform to merit and formal rules of scientific reviewing like short positive or negative remarks not supported by a close scrutiny or definitely critical reviews with positive final conclusion and vice versa. Referee’s remarks are presented to the author. Rational and motivated conclusions are obligatory for the author. He/she has to consider all remarks and revise the text accordingly. Referee has the right to verify so revised text.
11.Author of the text has the right to comment referee’s conclusions in case he/she does not agree with them.
12.Editor-in Chief (supported by members of the Editorial Board) decides upon publication based on remarks and conclusions presented by referees, author’s comments and the final version of the manuscript.
13.Rules of acceptation or rejection of the paper and the review form are available at the web page of the Editorial House or the journal.
14.Once a year Editorial Office publishes present list of cooperating reviewers.
15.According to usual habit, reviewing is free of charge.
16.Papers rejected by referees are archived at the Editorial Office for 5 years.

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