Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2022 | vol. 62 | No 4

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Abstract

Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of aroids and can cause major economic losses for ornamental crops. Here, we present the detection and molecular characterisation of DsMV isolates originating from Monstera adansonii plants in Poland. Moreover, the genetic variability of DsMV isolates was analyzed based on the coat protein gene ( CP) of the Polish and other DsMV isolates described to date. The presence of DsMV was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with specific, diagnostic primers in three out of ten examined plants. To obtain full-length sequences of CP, two pairs of primers were designed and used in the RT-PCR. The specificity of obtained products was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The obtained sequences of CP were compared with 44 other DsMV sequences retrieved from the GenBank. Analyses revealed that DsMV population is very diverse. The variability of DsMV isolates was confirmed by low sequence identity and pervasive recombination events. The phylogenetic analysis was performed based on 37 non-recombinant CP sequences. The maximum-likelihood reconstruction revealed that the Polish isolates are distinct and grouped separately from other DsMV isolates. Due to the high genetic diversity, detecting the virus could be difficult. Nonetheless disease management relies strongly on a fast and accurate identification of the causal agent. To our knowledge this is the first report of DsMV in Poland.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Taberska
1
Julia Minicka
1
Daria Budzyńska
1
Beata Hasiów-Jaroszewska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Virology and Bacteriology, Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

Exotic plants, such as Eragrostis plana in southern Brazil, may cause significant problems in agriculture. This study aimed to elucidate the influence of E. plana rhizosphere soil on wheat germination and initial development. Bioassays with soil sampled from an infested agroecosystem were carried out using wheat as the target species. A factorial design was used, crossing soil from the horizontal and vertical distances from the E. plana tiller base and considering seasons as a blocking factor. The interaction between season and vertical and horizontal soil positions influenced normal wheat seed germination, with the lowest values (69%) observed in the winter bottom and intermediate soil positions. The highest abnormal seedling percentage (17.6%) was recorded in the summer middle vertical soil position. Dormant wheat seeds were higher (7%) in the spring bottom and distal soil positions. The season was the most important factor for germination, but hypocotyl, radicle, and total wheat seedling length also varied according to soil position. Shorter hypocotyls and seedlings were registered in the summer soil surface, while shorter radicles were observed in the proximal horizontal soil position in the same season. This variable response of wheat germination and seedling development to the infested soil demonstrated E. plana seasonality. The influence also varied according to the distance from the plant tiller base. These findings may be used to improve E. plana management in infested fields and to understand the mechanism of action of its allelochemicals in future research.
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Authors and Affiliations

Henrique von Hertwig Bittencourt
1
Lisandro Tomas da Silva Bonome
1
Edison Ferreira dos Santos Júnior
1
Alexandre Monkolski
2
Roger Paulo Mormul
3
Michelangelo Muzell Trezzi
4
Jakeline Galvão de França Monkolski
2

  1. Agronomy, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Laranjeiras do Sul, Brazil
  2. Biology, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Laranjeiras do Sul, Brazil
  3. Biology, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Brazil
  4. Agronomy, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Pato Branco, Brazil
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Abstract

In a previous study, the endophytic Bacillus velezensis NC318 was isolated from the rhizosphere of date palm and showed strong antifungal activity against the soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus, Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc, the causal agent of Southern blight. The potential of the Bacillus genus in the inhibition of plant pathogens is mainly due to the production of certain bioactive compounds. In the present study, secondary metabolites extracted from the cell-free supernatant of strain NC318 showed strong antifungal activity on the mycelial growth and germination of S. rolfsii sclerotia in vitro. With 50 μl of bioactive compounds crude extracts, the mycelial growth inhibition rate was 97% and any germination of sclerotia was reported. Chemical analysis of the secondary metabolite crude extracts performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), revealed that the secreted bioactive compounds belonged to the family of lipopeptides (iturin, fengycin, surfactin), polyketides (bacillaene, macrolactin, difficidin and bacilysin) and siderophores (bacillibactin). These results provide a better understanding of the biocontrol mechanism of the bacteria strain B. velezensis NC318 against the soil fungal pathogens, especially S. rolfsii root rot.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michelle Gaëlle Siméone Bidima
1
Noureddine Chtaina
1
Brahim Ezzahiri
1
Mohammed El Guilli
2
Ilham Barakat
1
Taha El Kamli
3

  1. Plant Protection Unit, Hassan II Agronomic and Veterinary Institute, Rabat, Morocco
  2. Plant Protection Unit, National Institute of Agronomic Research, Rabat, Morocco
  3. Anti-Doping Control Laboratory, Hassan II Agronomic and Veterinary Institute, Kenitra, Morocco
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Abstract

Straw is a valuable by-product of crop production which can be used for various purposes (livestock feed and bedding, bioenergy). However, it should primarily be retained on farmlands to prevent soil organic matter (SOM) losses. Straw retained on the field is usually incorporated into the soil when conventional (with ploughing) and reduced tillage systems are used or left on the soil surface (mulching) when a no-tillage system is practiced. The aim of this study was to determine how different straw management practices (straw removal, straw incorporation and straw mulching) affected the incidence of Cephalosporium gramineum on two winter wheat cultivars, the grain yield of these cultivars and selected soil properties based on a long-term micro-plot experiment. Cephalosporium stripe disease was absent or occurred at very low levels (0–2.4%) when straw was removed or incorporated every second year. The disease was most severe, 24–33% tillers infected, in the SM(N) treatment with yearly straw mulching and cv. Bogatka was more tolerant to C. gramineum infection than cv. Bamberka. Importantly, yearly straw incorporation into the soil in contrast to straw mulching resulted in low disease levels (5–8% tillers infected) in both cultivars. Only in the case of cv. Bamberka was the grain yield significantly reduced in the SM(N) treatment compared to other treatments. The soil in this experiment contained the lowest level of soil SOM, which amounted to 21.0 g ∙ kg –1 soil dry matter (DM), when each year wheat straw was removed (SR). Straw incorporation every second year resulted in 24.2 g of SOM ∙ kg –1 soil and the largest amounts of SOM (26.0–26.1 g ∙ kg –1 soil) were found with yearly straw incorporation into the soil. Yearly straw mulching was inferior in this respect and the soil in this treatment contained 23.8 g of SOM ∙ kg –1 soil DM.
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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Smagacz
1
Stefan Martyniuk
2

  1. Department of Systems and Economics of Crop Production, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute, Puławy, Poland
  2. Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, State Research Institute, Puławy, Poland
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Abstract

This study was carried out for the estimation of polyphenols (TP) and induction of oxidative enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) in sunflower plants through seed immersion in agrochemicals of salicylic acid (SA) and water soluble chitosan (CH) in addition to a conidial suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and then analysis of plant content of carbohydrates and protein. The highest level of PPO 253.3 U ꞏ min –1 was detected in 50 ppm SA for 6 h. Next was T. harzianum when catalyzed PPO with 193.67 U ꞏ min –1. Peroxidase was substantially catalyzed in accordance with the increment of inducers. Sunflower roots induced TP with up to 4.88 mg ꞏ g –1 in plants treated with SA at 50 ppm for 6 h and then declined with an increasing SA dose. The total carbohydrate content in leaves of 320 mg ꞏ 100 g –1 was found in treatments of CH at 50 ppm for 6 h. In roots, a carbohydrate content of 500 mg ꞏ 100 g –1 was observed using CH 75 ppm for 6 h. Trichoderma harzianum remarkably increased proteins in leaves and roots by up to 25% compared to 16.9% in the control. These results suggest that inducing the plants’ own defense mechanism by applying salicylic acid and chitosan and bio-control of T. harzianum may offer alternative methods for controlling charcoal rot of sunflower due to the creation of defensive enzymes and could support plant vigor by enhancement of its protein and carbohydrate content.
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Authors and Affiliations

Khadeeja Ahmed Sido
1
Wazeer Ali Hassan
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Plant Protection Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Duhok, Iraq
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Abstract

Ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is an important forage and suffers negative interference from weeds, like annual bluegrass ( Poa annua L.). The competition of annual bluegrass with ryegrass can interfere with crop growth and reduce the amount of forage for animal feed. We aimed to evaluate the interference of annual bluegrass in ryegrass crops through the differentiation of niche and establishment. Two experiments were carried out testing different competition strata (shoot, root, and both) and ryegrass establishment with or after annual bluegrass, with increasing populations of annual bluegrass (0, 35, 139, 279, 419 plants m –2). The variables were plant height, height length of the root system, stem diameter, and fresh weight of shoot and root systems of ryegrass. The negative interference of growing populations of annual bluegrass occurred when in competition for the shoot and root systems of ryegrass. The fresh weight of shoots and roots were impacted when competing for the same strata. Ryegrass, established after the population of annual bluegrass, showed less competitive capacity. The negative interference of annual bluegrass in ryegrass is greater when the plants fully compete for the resources of the environment, and when the ryegrass establishes after the competitor.
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Authors and Affiliations

Danúbia Quadros
1
Roberto Costa Avila Neto
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sylvio Dornelles
2
Danie Sanchotene
3
André Ulguim
1

  1. Crop Protection, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
  2. Biology, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
  3. Agrarian Sciences, Integrated Regional University, Santiago, Brazil
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Abstract

Plant parasites of the genera Longidorus Micoletzky, 1922 and Paralongidorus Siddiqi, Hooper and Khan, 1963 comprise a group of plant root ectoparasites, some of which are known as pests of economic importance. Their importance is further augmented by the fact that several species are known to be vectors of nepoviruses. To date 16 species from the genus Longidorus and two from Paralongidorus have been recorded in Poland. Despite their economic importance in agriculture currently there is no regional key for species identification. This paper presents such a key. The key has many illustrations and is based mainly on traits which are easily observable even by less experienced users. Thus, it should provide a useful tool for both scientists and specialists working in the field of plant protection, soil ecology and zoology as well as for teaching purposes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Franciszek Kornobis
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Entomology and Agricultural Pests, Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

Electrolyzed fertilizer solution (EFS) was produced by passing an irrigation solution through an electrolization chamber in order to suppress fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (Foc4) infecting banana plantlets. In the laboratory, EFS was prepared by electrolyzing solutions containing different amounts of potassium chloride and potassium nitrate. The results indicated a significant reduction in the conidial densities of Foc4 which was from 10 6 spores · ml –1 to a maximum of 10 1.3 spores · ml –1 and depended on the concentration of components in the input flow. Eventually the EFS produced from the lowest one was chosen to treat banana plantlets. Greenhouse experiments gave contradictory results of inoculated plantlets irrigated with or without EFS. The untreated banana plantlets virtually showed symptoms of infection such as discoloration of cross-cut corms, rapid wilting and dying within 60 days, while the treated ones kept their shapes and grew normally. The drastic fall in the microbial population in the rhizosphere of treated plants confirmed the activity of oxidation agents which is the major mechanism of disease suppression. The results suggest that further studies of EFS in the field as a potential technique in fighting Panama wilt in the banana industry are necessary.
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Authors and Affiliations

Vu Anh Nguyen
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ha Van Nguyen
2
Phai Duy Do
3
Hung Ngoc Tran
4

  1. Department of Environmental Physico-Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam
  2. Department of Technology Application and Transfer, Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam
  3. Central Analytical Laboratory, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute, Hanoi, Viet Nam
  4. Department of Biotechnology, Fruit and Vegetable Research Institute, Hanoi, Viet Nam
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Abstract

The use of biostimulants and cultivar selection play an important role in modern potato farming because they influence tuber yield and quality. The nutritional value and processing suitability of potato tubers are affected by their content of total protein, reducing sugars and sucrose. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biostimulants on the content of total protein, glucose, fructose and sucrose in potato tubers (skin, flesh and whole tubers with skin), at harvest and after 5 months of storage. The experimental materials included tubers of five edible potato cultivars: Irga, Satina, Valfi, Blaue St. Galler and HB Red. During the growing season, potato plants were treated with the following biostimulants: Asahi SL, Bio-Algeen S-90, Kelpak SL and Trifender WP. Control plants were not treated with biostimulants. The total protein content of tubers was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Simple sugars and sucrose were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. At harvest, total protein concentration was significantly higher in purple- and red-fleshed cultivars than in cream- and yellow-fleshed cultivars. An analysis of tuber parts revealed that flesh had the highest protein content. The total protein content of tubers increased during storage. Biostimulants had no significant effect on total protein concentration in tubers at harvest or after storage. The content of simple sugars and sucrose was higher in the skin, flesh and whole tubers of purple- and red-fleshed cultivars, than in cream- and yellow-fleshed cultivars. Potato tubers with colored flesh accumulated the highest amounts of total sugars. Biostimulants, in particular Bio-Algeen S-90 and Kelpak SL, contributed to the accumulation of monosaccharides and the disaccharide in potato tubers, and, in consequence, total sugars. Their concentrations in potato tubers increased during storage.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Głosek-Sobieraj
1
Jadwiga Wierzbowska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Agnieszka Waśkiewicz
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Entomology, Phytopathology and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
  2. Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
  3. Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities is a key element of food safety strategy. The present study focused on potential risks resulting from selected fruit, vegetable and cereal samples with pesticide residues exceeding maximum residue levels (MRLs) from a 5-year survey of official control in Poland (2017–2021). A novel, common tool, the EFSA Pesticide Residue Intake Model PRIMo was used for short-term exposure calculation with embedded consumption data from EU Member States. The challenge of the research was to determine whether the International Estimated Short Time Intakes (IESTI) of toxic pesticides in the diet are acceptable or not. For the first time with long-term investigation which involved many legislative changes, we prepared a picture of the most dangerous pesticides present in fruits, vegetables and cereals for the most critical sub-populations of adults and children. We examined whether these substances have the potential to cause harm to humans. From the full spectrum of 545 analyzed pesticides, we considered 13 pesticides above safety limits in the concentration range of 0.03 to 2.5 mg · kg –1. The most frequently detected compound was the non-authorized, organophospate insecticide chlorpyrifos, which poses toxicological risks to humans. The results of acute exposure were up to 93% ARfD for adults and up to 130% for children. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) showed that consumption of agricultural plants with potential risk can be safe for adults and children, with some exceptions. Samples containing flonicamid/Brussel sprouts (HQ = 1.3) and chlorpyrifos/rucola (HQ = 1.1) could have negative health effects on humans. However, an approach which overestimates the exposure due to a worst-case scenario ensures the widest possible safety margin for the consumers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Jankowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Izabela Hrynko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bożena Łozowicka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Laboratory of Food and Feed Safety, Institute of Plant Protection – NRI, Bialystok, Poland
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Abstract

The excessive use of chemical products to control thrips and the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is not only harmful to human health, the environment, and biodiversity, but also the resistance these generate in insects turns them inefficient in the long run. Consequently, to achieve sustainable and residue-free production, control alternatives must be explored. This work proposes the use of Beauveria bassiana (BB) in combination with inter-row cover (IC) to reduce the population of thrips and the incidence of TSWV on bell pepper. For this purpose, a trial was carried out in a bell pepper greenhouse, consisting of four randomly distributed treatments with four repetitions of 66 plants each. The treatments assayed were: T (without BB inoculation or IC), TC (without BB inoculation and with IC), B (inoculated with BB), and BC (inoculated with BB and IC). The B. bassiana CEP147 strain was used based on its effectiveness in previous laboratory tests. After detecting one thrips per flower, five foliar spray applications were made at weekly intervals. The trial lasted 4 months. During this time, the number of thrips in the three central plants of each repetition, the presence of symptoms compatible with TSWV, as well as the number of fruits, and their weight, length, width and health were monitored weekly. Between the fourth and sixth weeks after the last application, a significant reduction in the population of total thrips (nymphs + + adults) was observed in both treatments B and BC compared to T and TC. In addition, plants with symptoms compatible with TSWV were very scarce, and the fruits showed significant differences in their quality parameters, producing the longest and heaviest in the BC treatment. The results showed that combining biological and cultural control makes sustainable pepper production possible.
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Authors and Affiliations

María Emilia dos Santos Domingues
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mariana Del Pino
2
ORCID: ORCID
Andrea Vanesa Toledo
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Curso de Prácticas Profesionales I, Universidad Nacional Arturo Jauretche, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  2. Curso de Horticultura y Floricultura, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  3. Centro de Investigaciones de Fitopatología (CIDEFI-CICBA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
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Abstract

Rachiplusia nu (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the main soybean plague in Argentina. The main strategy employed to control this pest is chemical control, applying different chemical groups regardless of their harmful effects on the environment and human health. Different biological products using entomopathogenic fungi have been developed and are commercially available to control different insect pests worldwide. The objective of this work was to develop and apply, under field conditions, different fungal formulations using entomopathogenic fungi to control R. nu larvae. The mortality percentages in bioassays of R. nu larvae treated with different colonies of fungal entomopathogens ranged between 86.6 ± 8.4% for Beauveria bassiana (LPSc 1098) and 56.6 ± 4.2% for Metarhizium anisopliae (LPSc 907). Under laboratory conditions using fungal formulations of B. bassiana, the formulation 4 (LPSc 1086) exhibited the highest mortality percentage (100%), followed by formulation 5 (LPSc 1098), 97 ± 1.3%. Under field conditions, larval mortalities were 82.4 ± 5.56% for formulation F4 and 61.8 ± 7.5% for formulation F5. The results obtained in this work indicate that although a greater number of tests under field conditions with the fungal formulation F4 are necessary, the results obtained in this work allow speculating that it is possible to use this fungal formulation under field conditions to control R. nu.
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Authors and Affiliations

Matías Abalo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ana Clara Scorsetti
1
ORCID: ORCID
María Florencia Vianna
1
ORCID: ORCID
María Leticia Russo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Juan Manuel De Abajo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sebastián Alberto Pelizza
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Instituto de Botánica Carlos Spegazzini, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina

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Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

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