Environmental factors and the addition of adjuvants to the spray tank mix may interfere with glyphosate efficiency in hairy fleabane control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of air temperature and the addition of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 to glyphosate in the control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) hairy fleabane. Treatments consisted of air temperatures of 12°C and 25°C, six doses of glyphosate from zero to 2,880 g · ha−1, the presence or absence of (NH4)2SO4 in the spray solution, and one GS and another GR biotype. At the lowest tested dose (180 g · ha−1), control of the GR biotype was 91% and 20% when the plants were kept at 12°C and 25°C, respectively, reducing the resistance factor (RF) by 9.30 times and was associated to the reduction of temperature. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 increased the control by 10−20% at high glyphosate doses and at 25°C. The resistance of hairy fleabane to glyphosate was completely reversed when the plants were maintained at 12°C. At this temperature, resistant plants were controlled even at doses well below that recommended for the control of this species. At 25°C, a dose four times higher than that recommended was required for satisfactory control. At the field level, under situations of low temperatures, it was possible to improve the efficacy of glyphosate applications in hairy fleabane control, if there were no other mechanisms of resistance involved.
It was expected that there would be a relationship between plant density and arrangement within soybean plantations and ground beetles due to changes of abiotic habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of different plant arrangements of soybean plants on the abundance and species diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). The studies were conducted from 2015 to 2017 at the Experimental Research Station, Wrocław, Poland. The occurrence of beetles was examined on soybeans, growing in four different treatments: row spacing of 15 cm or 30 cm, and seeding density of 50 or 90 seeds per m2. The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design in four replicates. Ground beetles were collected with 16 pitfall traps, with one trap in the middle part of each plot. The obtained results show that the general number of ground beetles was similar between the treatments. Some minor effects were found in species number, which was higher in the lower row spacing treatment. Only less abundant species were significantly affected. The most abundant species in all years and treatments were Pseudoophonus rufipes, Harpalus affinis, Calathus fuscipes and Pterostichus melanarius. The abundance of the above-listed common ground beetle species did not differ significantly between treatments.
Although Syrian high-yielding wheat cultivars grown under Mediterranean conditions include acceptable levels of resistance to biotic constraints, little is known about their susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), a harmful disease of wheat cultivation worldwide. The capacity of 16 fungal isolates of four FHB species to confer the disease on spikes and spikelets of six widely grown old and modern Syrian durum and bread wheat cultivars with known in vitro quantitative resistance to FHB was evaluated. Quantitative traits were visually assessed using spray and point inoculations for determining disease development rates, disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) under controlled conditions. Differences in pathogenicity and susceptibility among wheat cultivars were observed, emphasizing the need for breeders to include aggressive isolates or a mixture of isolates representative of the FHB diversity in their screenings for selection of disease resistant cultivars. Bread wheat cultivars showed lower levels of spike and spikelet damage than durum cultivars regardless of the date of cultivar release. Overall, the six wheat cultivars expressed acceptable resistance levels to initial fungal infection and fungal spread. Quantitative traits showed significant correlation with previous standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCstandard) data generated in vitro. Thus, the predictive ability of AUDPCstandard appears to be crucial in assessing pathogenicity and resistance in adult wheat plants under controlled conditions. While in the Mediterranean countries the risk of disease is progressively increasing, the preliminary data in this report adds to our knowledge about four FHB species pathogenicity on a Syrian scale, where the environment is quite similar to some Mediterranean wheat growing areas, and show that Syrian cultivars could be new resistant donors with favorable agronomical characteristics in FHB-wheat breeding programs.
In this study defense responses in three potato varieties with different levels of reaction to the late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans were analyzed after inoculation with the pathogen. In the resistant cv. Pastusa Suprema, increased intensity of H2O2 and callose deposit accumulation was observed beginning at 24 hours after inoculation, followed by a hypersensitive response at the inoculation points. In the moderately resistant cv. Diacol-Monserrate, the same responses were observed as in the resistant variety, but with less intensity over time. For the susceptible cv. Diacol-Capiro, the responses observed occurred later than in the other two varieties, subsequent to the advance of the pathogen over extensive necrotic areas. These results suggest that early, intense peroxide and callose accumulation and a hypersensitive response are associated with the observed resistance of the cv. Pastusa Suprema and cv. Diacol-Monserrate to P. infestans.
In two field experiments, the effect of some weed control treatments (citric acid at the rate of 10, 15 and 20%, acetic acid at the rate of 20, 30 and 40%, oxadiargyl, oxyflurfen, rice straw mulch, hand hoeing and an unweeded check control treatment) on weed growth and onion productivity in sandy soils at the Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Research Centre, Egypt was studied. The results indicated that all weeded treatments reduced the dry weight of broadleaf, grassy and total weeds as compared with the weedy check. Oxadiargyl, followed by two hand hoeing, rice straw mulch and acetic acid 40% recorded the greatest weed control efficiency. Insignificant differences were noticed between these treatments. Applying rice straw mulch increased bulb length, bulb diameter, bulb weight and onion yield by 67.52, 57.55, 45.74 and 66.22% over the weedy check, respectively. The highest values of N, P and K were obtained from rice straw mulch treatment followed by hand hoeing, oxadiargyl and acetic acid 40% treatments. It may be concluded that farmers can certainly depend on mulching or acetic acid at 40% instead of using chemical herbicides especially in organic farm systems for controlling onion weeds.
In agriculture, the mixing of pesticides in tanks is a common practice. However, it is necessary to previse possible physical-chemical implications of this practice, which may affect the efficiency of the treatments performed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of acaricide to insecticidal spray mixtures on the formation of spray droplets and the interaction with citrus leaves. The experimental design was totally randomized, in a (2 × 3 + 1) factorial scheme for seven treatments. Factor A corresponded to the spray mixture used (isolate or in the mixture). Factor B corresponded to the insecticides tested (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, phosmet, and imidacloprid) and the control consisted of a spray mixture with spirodiclofen only. Nine replications were performed for characterization of the spray droplet size spectrum and four replications for the analysis of the surface tension and the contact angle. The mixture of pesticides showed positive results in terms of application safety. The addition of acaricide to insecticide spray mixtures reduced the surface tension and contact angle of droplets on the adaxial surface of orange leaves. There was an increment in volume median diameter (VMD), a significant reduction in the volume of droplets with drift-sensitive size and improvement in the uniformity of droplet size. Therefore, the addition of acaricide to an insecticide spray mixture positively influenced spray droplet formation and the interaction with citrus leaves providing better coverage and droplet size fractions with an appropriate size for safe and efficient application.
New solutions in plant protection applications are still highly desirable. Aiming at higher efficiency, environmental safety and profitability of production which, in addition to reducing the costs of the application of plant protection products, limits the destruction of soil structure combined use of agrochemicals seems to be one of the most important method in modern agriculture. In 2016 and 2017, the Plant Protection Institute – National Research Institute in Poznań, Poland, conducted field experiments on the possibility of combining two popular herbicides used to control monocotyledonous weeds: pinoxaden and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, with a two-component plant growth and development regulator (mepiquat chloride and prohexadione calcium) on KWS Ozon winter wheat. The tested substances were applied at the BBCH 24 stage of winter wheat – herbicide only, and at the BBCH 31 stage – a mix of herbicides with a plant growth and development regulator. Regardless of the method of application of pinoxaden (herbicide only or mixed), high effectiveness of Apera spica-venti control was obtained in both years of the study. The mix of pinoxaden with mepiquat chloride and prohexadione calcium reduced the wheat crop height to a similar extent as separate application of the substances. The combined application of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl with mepiquat chloride improved the effectiveness of wheat crop height control. The method of application of the substances had no significant effect on winter wheat yield. Grain yields harvested from plots treated with the above substances were significantly higher than control only in the case of high weed infestation of winter wheat. The technological value of wheat grain depended on the year of study, while the method of application did not have a significant impact on the evaluated parameters.
The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, an insect of the order Hemiptera which attacks more than 600 species of plants, is one of the most important agricultural pests around the world. The insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are useful biological pesticides, and some are toxic to Hemipteran insects. In this study, Colombian native isolates of Bt were functionally characterized at molecular and biological levels. The strains contained between one and five different crystal shapes: round, triangular, amorphous, bipyramidal and squared. The strains presented between three to seven bands of proteins in their electrophoretic pattern that were organized into six groups according to their possible biological activity on insect pests. Cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry1C genes were identified for PCR in the different Bt isolates. Bioassays were performed on tomato leaves whose surface was spread with 3 μg · ml−1 crude extract of Bt toxins. Second instar larvae of whitefly, which were placed on top of leaves and exposed to the toxins for 7 days, exhibited mortalities from 18 to 69%. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of ZBUJTL39, Bt kurstaki HD1 and ZCUJTL9 strains were 1.83, 1.85 and 2.16 μg · ml−1, respectively (p < 0.05). These results show that the native Bt strain ZBUJTL39, which contained the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cryCa and cryBa could eventually be used for the development of an integrated management program together with other tools for the control of B. tabaci.
Phylloplane microbes have been studied as strategic tools in management against plant pathogens. Non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi have been applied as crop protectants against various plant diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the potentiality of Aspergillus niger spores in altering the activity of four key enzymes related to defense in tomato. The experiment was designed such that two groups of 50 tomato plants were considered: group 1 – sprayed with autoclaved distilled water (control) and group 2 – sprayed with A. niger spores. Spraying was carried out under aseptic conditions. The experimental parameters included analysis of the activity of peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) as well as expression of POX and PPO isoforms. The results demonstrated an inductive effect of A. niger on the activity of POX, PPO, PAL and TAL. Enhanced expression of POX and PPO isoforms was also observed. The results indicated that A. niger can be considered probiotic for the management of tomato against its phytopathogens.
From 2009 to 2018, a total of 80 wheat crops were studied at plot and regional scales to predict stripe rust epidemics based on influential climatic indicators in Kermanshah province, Iran. Disease onset time and epidemic intensity varied spatially and temporarily. The disease epidemic variable was classified as having experienced nonepidemic, moderate or severe epidemics to be used for statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify climatic variables associated with occurrence and intensity of stripe rust epidemics. Two principal factors accounting for 70% of the total variance indicated association of stripe rust epidemic occurrence with the number of icy days with minimum temperatures below 0°C (for subtropical regions) and below −10°C (for cool temperate and semi-arid regions). Disease epidemic intensity was linked to the number of rainy days, the number of days with minimum temperatures within the range of 7−8°C and relative humidity (RH) above 60%, and the number of periods involving consecutive days with minimum temperature within the range of 6−9°C and RH% > 60% during a 240-day period, from September 23 to May 21. Among mean monthly minimum temperatures and maximum relative humidity examined, mean maximum relative humidity for Aban (from October 23 to November 21) and mean minimum temperature for Esfand (from February 20 to March 20) indicated higher contributions to stripe rust epidemic development. Confirming PCA results, a multivariate logit ordinal model was developed to predict severe disease epidemics. The findings of this study improved our understanding of the combined interactions between air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and wheat stripe rust development over a three-season period of autumn-winter-spring.
The role of the tea commodity in the economy of Indonesia is quite strategic. Various types of microorganisms in nature have been known to increase the benefit of the root function, suppress disease, and accelerate plant growth. This study aimed to determine the potential of indigenous bacteria (Azoto II-1, Acinetobacter sp., bacteria Endo-5, bacteria Endo-65 and Endo-76) on the growth of tea plants and their potential in increasing resistance to blister blight disease. The test of microbes’ potential effect on growth and blister blight was conducted in Gambung, West Java in an experimental field using a randomized block design (RBD) with six treatments and each treatment was replicated four times. The composition of the treatments was: A) Endo-5; B) Endo-65; C) Endo-76; D) Azoto II-1; E) Acinetobacter sp.; and F) control (without microbes). Bacterial suspension was applied directly to the soil at a dose of 2 l · ha−1. The bacterial suspension was applied six times at 1 week intervals. The results of field observations indicated that the intensity of blister blight decreased in all treatments but did not significantly differ from the control. Meanwhile, the results of Acinetobacter sp. treatment in tea shoots was 17.26% higher than the control.
Leaf scald, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monographella albescens, is one of the main threats to rice (Oryza sativa L.) around the world. This disease decreases yields in rice by up to 30% because of dead leaf tissue, damaged seeds, and sterile flowers. Currently, there is limited knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in rice plant resistance against this pathogen. For this purpose, six commercial cultivars of rice were primarily screened for M. albescens infection and development. Dasht and Salari were found to be the most resistant and susceptible to M. albescens infection, respectively. The plants were kept in a greenhouse at 29 ± 2°C during the day and 26 ± 2°C at night with a relative air humidity of 85 ± 5%. Forty-five days after sowing, the plants with three biological replications were inoculated by transferring a PDA disc (0.3 cm2) containing M. albescens mycelia to the middle third of the 7th, 8th, and 9th completely open leaves. The leaves were collected 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hai. Leaf samples were also collected from the non-inoculated plants (0 h) to serve as controls. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed rapid induction and significant accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) responsive genes such as lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase 2 (Aos2), jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase 1 (JMT1) and ACC synthase 1 (ACS1) in the resistant Dasht cultivar after infection with M. albescens. Furthermore, the transcripts of salicylic acid (SA) responsive phenyl alanine ammonia lyase 1 (PAL1) and nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) genes were induced in the incompatible interaction. The activities of the defense enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased strongly in Dasht in response to M. albescens infection. In addition, there was an increase in the H2O2 levels in the leaves of the Dasht cultivar during the infectious period of M. albescens associated with the enhancement of catalase (CAT) activity as well as higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). This is the first study on the interaction between rice and M. albescens at the molecular level. It can contribute to understanding how rice responds to pathogen infection, as well as assist with future research plans of molecular breeding regarding the tolerance to leaf scald disease.
Biological parameters of the larval parasitoid Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera : Bethylidae) and its host the saw-toothed beetle Oryzapehilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera : Silvanidae) were studied in the laboratory. The duration of the immature period, survival during development, as well as adult longevity and the number of progeny of both insects were recorded. Our data were used for the estimation of several demographic parameters and life table construction of both the host and the parasitoid. The wasp managed to complete its development (egg – adult) in 19.8 days at 25oC, whereas the adult female lived for 24.3 days. The host O. surinamensis demonstrated a longer developmental period (30.5 days) and adult female longevity (103.0 days). Female wasps laid an average of 66.4 eggs throughout their lifetime whereas their beetle hosts laid five times more eggs (313.9). Life table parameters of C. tarsalis were estimated for the first time. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was 0.124 which was almost double that of its host (0.056). Our results are discussed on the basis of evaluating and improving the performance of C. tarsalis as a biocontrol agent against O. surinamensis in storage facilities.
Weed control is the most important constraint of autumn-sown chickpea production. Field experiments were conducted at three sites to evaluate the yield response of autumn-sown rainfed chickpea and weed control with PRE pendimethalin, POST pyridate, PRE isoxaflutole, preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) of imazethapyr through hand-weeded, untreated and weed free checks. The results showed that pyridate was the safest option for weed control in chickpea. The highest grain yield of chickpea was obtained with application of pyridate followed by isoxaflutolein three sites. Imazethapyr and metribuzin caused higher visual injuries than the other treatments. Furthermore, the applications of pyridate, isoxaflutole, metribuzin, and pendimethalin, as well as PRE and POST imazethapyr were found to reduce the total weed densities (averaged for three locations) by as much as 76, 75, 75.4, 43, 64, and 64.5% within 30 days after treatments, respectively.
5.8S ribosomal RNA plays an important role in protein synthesis and eukaryotic ribosome translocation. Contact DNA insecticides based on antisense fragments of 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. showed prospective insecticidal activity on its larvae. The most pronounced insecticidal effect was found for antisense fragments 10 and 11 nucleotides long (oligoRIBO-10 and oligoRIBO-11), whereas 12 nucleotides long fragment (oligoRIBO-12) caused the lowest level of insect mortality. This data corresponds to results obtained earlier using rabbit reticulocyte and wheat germ extracts, where maximum inhibition of protein synthesis was observed when a relevant oligomer 10-11 nucleotides long was used, whilst longer chain lengths resulted in reduced inhibition. Using oligoRIBO-11 fragment we have shown penetration of antisense oligonucleotides to insect cells through insects’ exoskeletons. MALDI technique registered the penetration of the oligoRIBO-11 fragment into insect cells after 30 min and a significant response of insect cells to the applied oligonucleotide after 60 min, which indicates not only that the oligonucleotide enters the insect cells, but also the synthesis of new substances in response to the applied DNA fragment. Contact DNA insecticides developed from the L. dispar 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene provide a novel biotechnology for plant protection using unmodified antisense oligonucleotides.
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