Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2020 | vol. 41 | No 2 |

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The paper presents analytical relationships based on the theory of Green’s functions. The relationships refer to instantaneous and continuous as well as point and ring heat sources which are discussed. The relationship relating to continuous ring source is the basis for modelling and designing of spiral ground heat exchangers. Heat transfer in the infinite and semi-infinite body was considered. In the latter case, the image method was discussed. Using the results of measurements regarding heat transfer in the ground with a heat exchanger in the form of a single coil installed, a comparison of calculated ground temperatures with measured values was presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Larwa
Krzysztof Kupiec
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The work presents the process of drying wood biomass after pre-treatment involving either debarking or crushing. The biomass used for research came from a robinia species wood. The material was dried in free-convection, at the drying medium temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ◦C, respectively. Pre- treatment proved to have a significant impact on the drying rate, including the time required to reach moisture content of 10%, essential to start further treatment of biomass for power industry purposes. It was found that debarked samples of robinia lost water more quickly than the crushed ones. Samples that did not undergo pre-treatment took the longest time to dry.

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Authors and Affiliations

Szymon Głowacki
Małgorzata Jaros
Mariusz Sojak
Weronika Tulej
Andrzej Bryś
Monika Witek
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This paper presents an experimental study on Cochineal Red A dye adsorptive removal by yeast. Batch equilibrium and kinetic tests were conducted in constant temperature of 30 ◦C for the dye’s initial concentration range of 0.02–0.50 g/L (pH = 3 and 10) and 0.02–0.35 g/L (pH = 7:6). The equilibrium was reached after 105–120 min. Yeast demonstrated the adsorption capacity of 10.16 mg/g for acidic environment (pH = 3) and slightly lower values (8.13 mg/g and 8.38 mg/g respectively) for neutral (pH = 7:6) and alkaline environment (pH = 10). The experimental equilibrium results were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Toth isotherm models. Most of them (Freundlich model being the exception) were proven sufficient for the experimental data correlation. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second order model fits better the experimental data than the pseudo-first- order model. Results achieved from intra-particle diffusion model indicate that powdered yeast are a nonporous adsorbent. The percentage of solution discoloration reached a maximum value of 75% at pH = 3 for an initial dye concentration of 0.02 g/L.

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Authors and Affiliations

Martyna Borysiak
Elżbieta Gabruś
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Poly(glycerol succinate) – PGSu – is one of glycerol polyesters which has focused nowadays the interest of scientists developing new biomaterials. Probably the polyester could be used as a drug carrier or as a cell scaffold in tissue engineering. Due to its potential use in medicine, it is extremely important to develop a synthesis and then optimize it to obtain a material with desired properties. In this work one flask two-step polycondensation of glycerol and succinic anhydride to PGSu is presented. Synthesis was optimized with the simplex method and also described using a second-degree equation with two variables (temperature and time) to better find the optimum conditions. PGSu was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, degree of esterification was determined, and also molecular weight was calculated for each experiment using Carothers equation. A new synthesis route was developed and optimized. Temperature and time influence on molecular weight and esterification degree of obtained polyester are presented. Based on experiments conducted in this work, it was possible to obtain poly(glycerol succinate) with molecular weight of 6.7 kDa.

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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Wrzecionek
Joanna Howis
Paweł Ruśkowski
Agnieszka Gadomska-Gajadhur
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This paper aims to show the effect of activation method of tyre pyrolysis char (TPC) on adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions. The TPC was produced from end-of-life-tyres (ELT) feedstock in a pilot plant at 773 K. Activation was accomplished using two classical methods: physical activation withCO2 and chemical activation withKOH. The two produced adsorbents had pores ranging from micro- to macropores. Distinct differences in the BET surface areas and pore volumes between the adsorbents were displayed showing better performance of the chemically activated adsorbent for adsorption of BPA from water.

The results of the kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of BPA followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Langmuir–Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherm equations were used for description of the adsorption data. The Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm model best fits the experimental data for the BPA adsorption on both adsorbents. The Langmuir–Freundlich monolayer adsorption capacity, qmLF, obtained for the CO2-activated tyre pyrolysis char (AP-CO2) and KOH-activated tyre pyrolysis char (AP-KOH) were 0.473 and 0.969 mmol g��1, respectively.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Kuśmierek
Andrzej Świątkowski
Tomasz Kotkowski
Robert Cherbański
Eugeniusz Molga
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Every change in the bottle geometry aswell as every change of physical and rheological properties poses a risk of excessive gas entrainment during a filling process. To maintain satisfactory filling efficiency there is a need to optimise this process with respect to all adverse phenomena which affect the fluid flow, such as spluttering on the bottom, air caverns formation and air entrainment with incoming liquid. This paper comprises numerical simulations of two filling methods. The first method involves dosing with a pipe placed over the free liquid surface of a fully filled bottle. The second method covers filling with a pipe located near the bottom. Moreover, the influence of rheological properties and surface tension values is considered. The comprehensive analysis of amount of entrained air represented by air volume fraction in dispensed liquid let the authors define the influence of filling speed on the mechanism and amount of entrapped air.

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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Jałowiecka
Łukasz Makowski

Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via e-mail address When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles. 

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
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  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
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          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

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        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations


The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at

Examples of citation for:

Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

Suggested Reviewers

Authors are kindly requested to include a list of 3 potential reviewers for their manuscript, with complete contact information. These reviewers must not be from the authors' institutions, or have co-authored with authors of the manuscript.


Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Executive Editor: dr hab. inż. Paweł Sobieszuk, email address:

Publication Ethics Policy


Editors of the "Chemical and Process Engineering" pay attention to maintain ethical standards in scientific publications and undertake any possible measure to counteract neglecting the standards. Papers submitted for publication are evaluated with respect to reliability, conforming to ethical standards and the advancement of science. Principles given below are based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, which may be found at:

Authors’ duties

Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Author should disclose all sources of financing of his/her study, the input of scientific institutions, associations and other subjects and all important conflicts of interests that might affect results and interpretation of the study.

Standards in reporting
Authors of papers based on original studies should present precise description of performed work and objective discussion on its importance. Source data should be accurately presented in the paper. The paper should contain detailed information and references that would enable others to use it. False or intentionally not true declarations are not ethical and are not accepted by the editors.

Access to and storage of data
Authors may be asked for providing raw data used in the paper for editorial assessment and should be prepared to store them within the reasonable time period after publication.

Multiple, unnecessary and competitive publications
As a rule author should not publish papers describing the same studies in more than one journal or primary publication. Submission of the same paper to more than one journal at the same time is not ethical and prohibited.

Confirmation of sources
Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

Important errors in published papers
When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.

Originality and plagiarism
Author may submit only original papers. He/she should be certain that the names of authors referred to in the paper and/or fragments of their texts are properly cited or mentioned.

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Duties of the Editorial Office

Editors’ duties
Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.

Decisions on publication
Editor-in Chief is obliged to apply present legal status as to defamation, violation of author’s rights and plagiarism and bears the responsibility for decisions. He/she may consult thematic editors and/or referees in that matter.

Selection of referees
Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).

Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.

To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.

Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

Objectivity standards
Reviews should be objective. Personal criticism is inappropriate. Referees should clearly ex-press their opinions and support them with proper arguments.

All reviewed papers should be dealt with as confidential. They should not be discussed or revealed to persons other than the secretary of the Editorial Office.

All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

Confirmation of sources
Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

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