Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2011 | vol. 60 | No 2 June

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This experimental paper comprises the results of acoustic emission (AE), microscopic and ultrasonic measurements of samples subjected to slowly increasing compressive stress. On the basis of conducted measurements the successive stages of the material structural degradation have been recognized. The objects of study were samples made of C 120 aluminous porcelain. The investigated material has found at present the application in the fabrication of technical elements like overhead power line insulators. In the case of such objects, not only high mechanical strength, but especially elevated durability as well as operational reliability are required. The expected "life time" of net insulators during exploitation is about 40 years. The analysis of obtained mechanoacoustic dependences pointed out a complex mechanism of degradation of the material. Microscopic investigation of samples, which were stressed to different levels of load, enabled to specify the development of gradual growth of microcracks and successive crushing out of elements of the structure. These processes appear to be similar to the ageing processes occurring in the material during long period of exploitation under a working load. Three stages of the structure degradation were distinguished. The preliminary and subcritical ones show low or moderate intensity of AE signals and considerable variety for the particular samples. The critical stage directly precedes the destructtion of samples. Its range is relatively narrow and reveals the AE activity of high energy. The effectiveness of dispersive and fibrous reinforcement of modern aluminous porcelain C 120 type has been described. Structural strengthening by corundum grains and mullite needle shaped crystals improves mechanical parameters and distinguishes this material from typical aluminosilicate ceramics. The presented results enable drawing up the conclusions concerning the resistance of investigated material to the ageing degradation process development during long term operation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Przemysław Ranachowski
Feliks Rejmund
Zbigniew Ranachowski
Andrzej Pawełek
Andrzej Piątkowski
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It is shown that decrease and damping of the traction force at the end of the plunger move is possible not only due to application of a special keeper design, but also due to change of the plunger shank geometric form. The computer modeling with the use of finite element method is used to analyze the influence of system geometry on force distribution along plunger movement. The damping effect is confirmed when special shape plunger shanks are used.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mykhaylo Zagirnyak
Yurii Branspiz
Andrii Pshenychnyi
Damijan Miljavec
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This paper presents a method intended for calculation of steady-state processes in AC/AC three-phase converters that are described by nonstationary periodical differential equations. The method is based on the extension of nonstationary differential equations and the use of Galerkin's method. The results of calculations are presented in the form of a double Fourier series. As an example, a three-phase matrix-reactance frequency converter (MRFC) with boost topology is considered and the results of computation are compared with a numerical method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Igor Ye. Korotyeyev
Beata Zięba
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This research presents the novel control strategy of the brushless DC motor. The optimal current driver is designed using Linear Quadratic Regulator and feedback linearization. Additionally, the current reshaping strategy is applied to control the motor torque. Thus, the torque controller is built based on the optimal current driver. The motor is simulated using the FEM analysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Bernat
Sławomir Stępień
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The Small Hydro Power Plants allow to increase the energy amount from renewable sources, especially from small rivers in mountainous areas. This paper presents a new concept of a energy conversion system for application in a Small Hydropower Plant (SHP) which is based on a permanent magnet generator (PM generator) with a propeller turbine integrated with the generator rotor. The PM generator can work at a variable speed and therefore energy produced by the PM generator has to be converted by means of a power electronic unit to fit to the three-phase power grid parameters. For this concept, dimensions and parameters of the PM generator were specially designed on account of integration with water turbine. The paper precisely describes elements of energy conversion system and also presents the results of numerical tests for chosen working conditions. An original algorithm of control strategy for power electronic unit was used to adjust generated energy to the required parameters of the three-phase grid.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Sobczyk
Tomasz Węgiel
Witold Mazgaj
Zbigniew Szular
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Total Artificial Hearts (TAHs) are required for the therapy of terminal heart diseases as heart transplants are only a limited option due to the available number of donor hearts. For implantation TAHs have to meet constraints regarding its dimensions, weight, perfusions and electrical losses. An innovative linear driven TAH is presented, which meets all constraints except weight. Therefore the geometry of the linear drive is optimised to reduce its weights while simultaneously limiting the electrical losses as much as possible. In order to calculate the losses, this paper introduced a combined calculation chain consisting of FEM simulations and analytical equations. Based on this chain the linear drive is optmised by the method of parameter variations. The results yield a hierachic order of parameters which are most suitable for the weight reduction of the drive for low losses. By this the weight of the linear drive is reduced by 25%. As the allowable loss limit is not exceeded yet, room for further weight reduction achieved by an optimisation of the axial geomtry parameters is given.
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Authors and Affiliations

André Pohlmann
Thomas Schmitz-Rode
Marc Lessmann
Thomas Finocchiaro
Andreas Fritschi
Ulrich Steinseifer
Kay Hameyer
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The paper deals with the problem of position and speed estimation methods in SRM (Switched Reluctance Motor) drive equipped with hysteresis band current controller with MRAS (Model Reference Adaptive System) type observer. An adaptive flux model uses equation set of one-dimensional equations instead of one two-dimensional equation. The reference model is the formal one. Instead of measured current the observer utilizes reference current. Such drive system works well at speed range up to 600 rad/s. The observer's gains must change depend on the speed range. The robustness on motor parameter poor estimation is presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Konrad Urbański
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In the paper, the mathematical model of coupled electromagnetic and thermal phenomena in the pulse transformer taking into account the magnetic hysteresis is presented. For the mapping of magnetic hysteresis, Jiles-Atherton model is applied. In order to solve field equations, the finite element method (FEM), "step-by-step" procedure and Newton-Raphson algorithm are used. Software elaborated on this basis is used for analysis of hysteresis loss in the core. Selected results of investigations are shown.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wiesław Łyskawiński
Piotr Sujka
Wojciech Szeląg
Mariusz Barański
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This paper describes the application of the skull melting method for an artificial generation of particulate material of inorganic compounds like CsOH, NaOH, SnO2 and UO2. The skull melting process is analyzed analytically. Thereby the electromagnetic field is calculated by a one dimensional time harmonic model. Thermal losses are estimated by simple analytical formulas. Finally an electromagnetic thermal field coupling is performed to calculate the temperature distribution inside the crucible, considering transient thermal effects. The skull melting process is simulated for the example of UO2. Under consideration of the given material properties it is shown that the skull melting method can be applied to fuse UO2.
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Authors and Affiliations

Björn Riemer
Enno Lange
Kay Hameyer

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ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

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Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


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AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.

The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

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