Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2019 | vol. 59 | No 4 |

Abstract

Environmental factors and the addition of adjuvants to the spray tank mix may interfere with glyphosate efficiency in hairy fleabane control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of air temperature and the addition of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 to glyphosate in the control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) hairy fleabane. Treatments consisted of air temperatures of 12°C and 25°C, six doses of glyphosate from zero to 2,880 g · ha−1, the presence or absence of (NH4)2SO4 in the spray solution, and one GS and another GR biotype. At the lowest tested dose (180 g · ha−1), control of the GR biotype was 91% and 20% when the plants were kept at 12°C and 25°C, respectively, reducing the resistance factor (RF) by 9.30 times and was associated to the reduction of temperature. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 increased the control by 10−20% at high glyphosate doses and at 25°C. The resistance of hairy fleabane to glyphosate was completely reversed when the plants were maintained at 12°C. At this temperature, resistant plants were controlled even at doses well below that recommended for the control of this species. At 25°C, a dose four times higher than that recommended was required for satisfactory control. At the field level, under situations of low temperatures, it was possible to improve the efficacy of glyphosate applications in hairy fleabane control, if there were no other mechanisms of resistance involved.

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Abstract

It was expected that there would be a relationship between plant density and arrangement within soybean plantations and ground beetles due to changes of abiotic habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of different plant arrangements of soybean plants on the abundance and species diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). The studies were conducted from 2015 to 2017 at the Experimental Research Station, Wrocław, Poland. The occurrence of beetles was examined on soybeans, growing in four different treatments: row spacing of 15 cm or 30 cm, and seeding density of 50 or 90 seeds per m2. The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design in four replicates. Ground beetles were collected with 16 pitfall traps, with one trap in the middle part of each plot. The obtained results show that the general number of ground beetles was similar between the treatments. Some minor effects were found in species number, which was higher in the lower row spacing treatment. Only less abundant species were significantly affected. The most abundant species in all years and treatments were Pseudoophonus rufipes, Harpalus affinis, Calathus fuscipes and Pterostichus melanarius. The abundance of the above-listed common ground beetle species did not differ significantly between treatments.

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Abstract

Although Syrian high-yielding wheat cultivars grown under Mediterranean conditions include acceptable levels of resistance to biotic constraints, little is known about their susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), a harmful disease of wheat cultivation worldwide. The capacity of 16 fungal isolates of four FHB species to confer the disease on spikes and spikelets of six widely grown old and modern Syrian durum and bread wheat cultivars with known in vitro quantitative resistance to FHB was evaluated. Quantitative traits were visually assessed using spray and point inoculations for determining disease development rates, disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) under controlled conditions. Differences in pathogenicity and susceptibility among wheat cultivars were observed, emphasizing the need for breeders to include aggressive isolates or a mixture of isolates representative of the FHB diversity in their screenings for selection of disease resistant cultivars. Bread wheat cultivars showed lower levels of spike and spikelet damage than durum cultivars regardless of the date of cultivar release. Overall, the six wheat cultivars expressed acceptable resistance levels to initial fungal infection and fungal spread. Quantitative traits showed significant correlation with previous standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCstandard) data generated in vitro. Thus, the predictive ability of AUDPCstandard appears to be crucial in assessing pathogenicity and resistance in adult wheat plants under controlled conditions. While in the Mediterranean countries the risk of disease is progressively increasing, the preliminary data in this report adds to our knowledge about four FHB species pathogenicity on a Syrian scale, where the environment is quite similar to some Mediterranean wheat growing areas, and show that Syrian cultivars could be new resistant donors with favorable agronomical characteristics in FHB-wheat breeding programs.

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Abstract

In this study defense responses in three potato varieties with different levels of reaction to the late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans were analyzed after inoculation with the pathogen. In the resistant cv. Pastusa Suprema, increased intensity of H2O2 and callose deposit accumulation was observed beginning at 24 hours after inoculation, followed by a hypersensitive response at the inoculation points. In the moderately resistant cv. Diacol-Monserrate, the same responses were observed as in the resistant variety, but with less intensity over time. For the susceptible cv. Diacol-Capiro, the responses observed occurred later than in the other two varieties, subsequent to the advance of the pathogen over extensive necrotic areas. These results suggest that early, intense peroxide and callose accumulation and a hypersensitive response are associated with the observed resistance of the cv. Pastusa Suprema and cv. Diacol-Monserrate to P. infestans.

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Abstract

In two field experiments, the effect of some weed control treatments (citric acid at the rate of 10, 15 and 20%, acetic acid at the rate of 20, 30 and 40%, oxadiargyl, oxyflurfen, rice straw mulch, hand hoeing and an unweeded check control treatment) on weed growth and onion productivity in sandy soils at the Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Research Centre, Egypt was studied. The results indicated that all weeded treatments reduced the dry weight of broadleaf, grassy and total weeds as compared with the weedy check. Oxadiargyl, followed by two hand hoeing, rice straw mulch and acetic acid 40% recorded the greatest weed control efficiency. Insignificant differences were noticed between these treatments. Applying rice straw mulch increased bulb length, bulb diameter, bulb weight and onion yield by 67.52, 57.55, 45.74 and 66.22% over the weedy check, respectively. The highest values of N, P and K were obtained from rice straw mulch treatment followed by hand hoeing, oxadiargyl and acetic acid 40% treatments. It may be concluded that farmers can certainly depend on mulching or acetic acid at 40% instead of using chemical herbicides especially in organic farm systems for controlling onion weeds.

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Abstract

In agriculture, the mixing of pesticides in tanks is a common practice. However, it is necessary to previse possible physical-chemical implications of this practice, which may affect the efficiency of the treatments performed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of acaricide to insecticidal spray mixtures on the formation of spray droplets and the interaction with citrus leaves. The experimental design was totally randomized, in a (2 × 3 + 1) factorial scheme for seven treatments. Factor A corresponded to the spray mixture used (isolate or in the mixture). Factor B corresponded to the insecticides tested (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, phosmet, and imidacloprid) and the control consisted of a spray mixture with spirodiclofen only. Nine replications were performed for characterization of the spray droplet size spectrum and four replications for the analysis of the surface tension and the contact angle. The mixture of pesticides showed positive results in terms of application safety. The addition of acaricide to insecticide spray mixtures reduced the surface tension and contact angle of droplets on the adaxial surface of orange leaves. There was an increment in volume median diameter (VMD), a significant reduction in the volume of droplets with drift-sensitive size and improvement in the uniformity of droplet size. Therefore, the addition of acaricide to an insecticide spray mixture positively influenced spray droplet formation and the interaction with citrus leaves providing better coverage and droplet size fractions with an appropriate size for safe and efficient application.

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Abstract

New solutions in plant protection applications are still highly desirable. Aiming at higher efficiency, environmental safety and profitability of production which, in addition to reducing the costs of the application of plant protection products, limits the destruction of soil structure combined use of agrochemicals seems to be one of the most important method in modern agriculture. In 2016 and 2017, the Plant Protection Institute – National Research Institute in Poznań, Poland, conducted field experiments on the possibility of combining two popular herbicides used to control monocotyledonous weeds: pinoxaden and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, with a two-component plant growth and development regulator (mepiquat chloride and prohexadione calcium) on KWS Ozon winter wheat. The tested substances were applied at the BBCH 24 stage of winter wheat – herbicide only, and at the BBCH 31 stage – a mix of herbicides with a plant growth and development regulator. Regardless of the method of application of pinoxaden (herbicide only or mixed), high effectiveness of Apera spica-venti control was obtained in both years of the study. The mix of pinoxaden with mepiquat chloride and prohexadione calcium reduced the wheat crop height to a similar extent as separate application of the substances. The combined application of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl with mepiquat chloride improved the effectiveness of wheat crop height control. The method of application of the substances had no significant effect on winter wheat yield. Grain yields harvested from plots treated with the above substances were significantly higher than control only in the case of high weed infestation of winter wheat. The technological value of wheat grain depended on the year of study, while the method of application did not have a significant impact on the evaluated parameters.

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Abstract

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, an insect of the order Hemiptera which attacks more than 600 species of plants, is one of the most important agricultural pests around the world. The insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are useful biological pesticides, and some are toxic to Hemipteran insects. In this study, Colombian native isolates of Bt were functionally characterized at molecular and biological levels. The strains contained between one and five different crystal shapes: round, triangular, amorphous, bipyramidal and squared. The strains presented between three to seven bands of proteins in their electrophoretic pattern that were organized into six groups according to their possible biological activity on insect pests. Cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry1C genes were identified for PCR in the different Bt isolates. Bioassays were performed on tomato leaves whose surface was spread with 3 μg · ml−1 crude extract of Bt toxins. Second instar larvae of whitefly, which were placed on top of leaves and exposed to the toxins for 7 days, exhibited mortalities from 18 to 69%. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of ZBUJTL39, Bt kurstaki HD1 and ZCUJTL9 strains were 1.83, 1.85 and 2.16 μg · ml−1, respectively (p < 0.05). These results show that the native Bt strain ZBUJTL39, which contained the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cryCa and cryBa could eventually be used for the development of an integrated management program together with other tools for the control of B. tabaci.

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Abstract

Phylloplane microbes have been studied as strategic tools in management against plant pathogens. Non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi have been applied as crop protectants against various plant diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the potentiality of Aspergillus niger spores in altering the activity of four key enzymes related to defense in tomato. The experiment was designed such that two groups of 50 tomato plants were considered: group 1 – sprayed with autoclaved distilled water (control) and group 2 – sprayed with A. niger spores. Spraying was carried out under aseptic conditions. The experimental parameters included analysis of the activity of peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) as well as expression of POX and PPO isoforms. The results demonstrated an inductive effect of A. niger on the activity of POX, PPO, PAL and TAL. Enhanced expression of POX and PPO isoforms was also observed. The results indicated that A. niger can be considered probiotic for the management of tomato against its phytopathogens.

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Abstract

From 2009 to 2018, a total of 80 wheat crops were studied at plot and regional scales to predict stripe rust epidemics based on influential climatic indicators in Kermanshah province, Iran. Disease onset time and epidemic intensity varied spatially and temporarily. The disease epidemic variable was classified as having experienced nonepidemic, moderate or severe epidemics to be used for statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify climatic variables associated with occurrence and intensity of stripe rust epidemics. Two principal factors accounting for 70% of the total variance indicated association of stripe rust epidemic occurrence with the number of icy days with minimum temperatures below 0°C (for subtropical regions) and below −10°C (for cool temperate and semi-arid regions). Disease epidemic intensity was linked to the number of rainy days, the number of days with minimum temperatures within the range of 7−8°C and relative humidity (RH) above 60%, and the number of periods involving consecutive days with minimum temperature within the range of 6−9°C and RH% > 60% during a 240-day period, from September 23 to May 21. Among mean monthly minimum temperatures and maximum relative humidity examined, mean maximum relative humidity for Aban (from October 23 to November 21) and mean minimum temperature for Esfand (from February 20 to March 20) indicated higher contributions to stripe rust epidemic development. Confirming PCA results, a multivariate logit ordinal model was developed to predict severe disease epidemics. The findings of this study improved our understanding of the combined interactions between air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and wheat stripe rust development over a three-season period of autumn-winter-spring.

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Abstract

The role of the tea commodity in the economy of Indonesia is quite strategic. Various types of microorganisms in nature have been known to increase the benefit of the root function, suppress disease, and accelerate plant growth. This study aimed to determine the potential of indigenous bacteria (Azoto II-1, Acinetobacter sp., bacteria Endo-5, bacteria Endo-65 and Endo-76) on the growth of tea plants and their potential in increasing resistance to blister blight disease. The test of microbes’ potential effect on growth and blister blight was conducted in Gambung, West Java in an experimental field using a randomized block design (RBD) with six treatments and each treatment was replicated four times. The composition of the treatments was: A) Endo-5; B) Endo-65; C) Endo-76; D) Azoto II-1; E) Acinetobacter sp.; and F) control (without microbes). Bacterial suspension was applied directly to the soil at a dose of 2 l · ha−1. The bacterial suspension was applied six times at 1 week intervals. The results of field observations indicated that the intensity of blister blight decreased in all treatments but did not significantly differ from the control. Meanwhile, the results of Acinetobacter sp. treatment in tea shoots was 17.26% higher than the control.

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Abstract

Leaf scald, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monographella albescens, is one of the main threats to rice (Oryza sativa L.) around the world. This disease decreases yields in rice by up to 30% because of dead leaf tissue, damaged seeds, and sterile flowers. Currently, there is limited knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in rice plant resistance against this pathogen. For this purpose, six commercial cultivars of rice were primarily screened for M. albescens infection and development. Dasht and Salari were found to be the most resistant and susceptible to M. albescens infection, respectively. The plants were kept in a greenhouse at 29 ± 2°C during the day and 26 ± 2°C at night with a relative air humidity of 85 ± 5%. Forty-five days after sowing, the plants with three biological replications were inoculated by transferring a PDA disc (0.3 cm2) containing M. albescens mycelia to the middle third of the 7th, 8th, and 9th completely open leaves. The leaves were collected 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hai. Leaf samples were also collected from the non-inoculated plants (0 h) to serve as controls. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed rapid induction and significant accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) responsive genes such as lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase 2 (Aos2), jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase 1 (JMT1) and ACC synthase 1 (ACS1) in the resistant Dasht cultivar after infection with M. albescens. Furthermore, the transcripts of salicylic acid (SA) responsive phenyl alanine ammonia lyase 1 (PAL1) and nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) genes were induced in the incompatible interaction. The activities of the defense enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased strongly in Dasht in response to M. albescens infection. In addition, there was an increase in the H2O2 levels in the leaves of the Dasht cultivar during the infectious period of M. albescens associated with the enhancement of catalase (CAT) activity as well as higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). This is the first study on the interaction between rice and M. albescens at the molecular level. It can contribute to understanding how rice responds to pathogen infection, as well as assist with future research plans of molecular breeding regarding the tolerance to leaf scald disease.

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Abstract

Biological parameters of the larval parasitoid Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera : Bethylidae) and its host the saw-toothed beetle Oryzapehilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera : Silvanidae) were studied in the laboratory. The duration of the immature period, survival during development, as well as adult longevity and the number of progeny of both insects were recorded. Our data were used for the estimation of several demographic parameters and life table construction of both the host and the parasitoid. The wasp managed to complete its development (egg – adult) in 19.8 days at 25oC, whereas the adult female lived for 24.3 days. The host O. surinamensis demonstrated a longer developmental period (30.5 days) and adult female longevity (103.0 days). Female wasps laid an average of 66.4 eggs throughout their lifetime whereas their beetle hosts laid five times more eggs (313.9). Life table parameters of C. tarsalis were estimated for the first time. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was 0.124 which was almost double that of its host (0.056). Our results are discussed on the basis of evaluating and improving the performance of C. tarsalis as a biocontrol agent against O. surinamensis in storage facilities.

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Abstract

Weed control is the most important constraint of autumn-sown chickpea production. Field experiments were conducted at three sites to evaluate the yield response of autumn-sown rainfed chickpea and weed control with PRE pendimethalin, POST pyridate, PRE isoxaflutole, preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) of imazethapyr through hand-weeded, untreated and weed free checks. The results showed that pyridate was the safest option for weed control in chickpea. The highest grain yield of chickpea was obtained with application of pyridate followed by isoxaflutolein three sites. Imazethapyr and metribuzin caused higher visual injuries than the other treatments. Furthermore, the applications of pyridate, isoxaflutole, metribuzin, and pendimethalin, as well as PRE and POST imazethapyr were found to reduce the total weed densities (averaged for three locations) by as much as 76, 75, 75.4, 43, 64, and 64.5% within 30 days after treatments, respectively.

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Abstract

5.8S ribosomal RNA plays an important role in protein synthesis and eukaryotic ribosome translocation. Contact DNA insecticides based on antisense fragments of 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. showed prospective insecticidal activity on its larvae. The most pronounced insecticidal effect was found for antisense fragments 10 and 11 nucleotides long (oligoRIBO-10 and oligoRIBO-11), whereas 12 nucleotides long fragment (oligoRIBO-12) caused the lowest level of insect mortality. This data corresponds to results obtained earlier using rabbit reticulocyte and wheat germ extracts, where maximum inhibition of protein synthesis was observed when a relevant oligomer 10-11 nucleotides long was used, whilst longer chain lengths resulted in reduced inhibition. Using oligoRIBO-11 fragment we have shown penetration of antisense oligonucleotides to insect cells through insects’ exoskeletons. MALDI technique registered the penetration of the oligoRIBO-11 fragment into insect cells after 30 min and a significant response of insect cells to the applied oligonucleotide after 60 min, which indicates not only that the oligonucleotide enters the insect cells, but also the synthesis of new substances in response to the applied DNA fragment. Contact DNA insecticides developed from the L. dispar 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene provide a novel biotechnology for plant protection using unmodified antisense oligonucleotides.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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