Metrology and Measurement Systems is an international journal, peer-reviewed, quarterly-published, launched in 1988. Since 2001 it has appeared in English. The journal is published both in the paper and electronic form on the Electronic Library platform, Polish Academy of Sciences.
The Journal is indexed in Journal Citation Reports and Web of Science Master Journal List (Clarivate Analytics formerly Thomson Reuters), INSPEC, Scopus, Index Copernicus, Google Scholar, CSA Technology Research, High Tech Research Database, Solid State & Superconductivity.
Impact Factor for 2022*: 1.0
Contributions are invited on all aspects of research, development and applications of the measurement science and associated technology.
The list of topics covered includes: theory, general principles and applications of measurement; measurement of physical, chemical and biological quantities; medical measurements; sensors and transducers; measurement data acquisition; measurement signal transmission; processing and data analysis; measurement systems and embedded systems; design, manufacture and evaluation of measurement instrumentation.
The average publication cycle is 6 months.
*According to Journal Citation Reports
ISSN 2080-9050, e-ISSN 2300-1941
Polish Academy of Sciences Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation
Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland Bruno ANDO University of Catania, Italy Martin BURGHOFF Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany Marcantonio CATELANI University of Florence, Italy Numan DURAKBASA Vienna University of Technology, Austria Janusz GAJDA AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland Domenico GRIMALDI University of Calabria, Italy Laszlo KISH Texas A&M University, USA Juha KOSTAMOVAARA University of Oulu, Finland Eduard LLOBET Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain Alex MASON Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand Janusz MROCZKA Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland Antoni ROGALSKI Military University of Technology, Poland Wiesław WOLIŃSKI Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
In pursuit of increased efficiency and longer operating times of photovoltaic systems, one may encounter numerous difficulties in the form of defects that occur in both individual solar cells and whole modules. The causes of the occurrence range from structural defects to damage during assembly or, finally, wear and tear of the material due to operation. This article provides an overview of modern imaging methods used to detect various types of defects found in photovoltaic cells and panels. The first part reviews typical defects. The second part of the paper reviews imaging methods with examples of the authors’ own test results. The article concludes with recommendations and tables that provide a kind of comprehensive guide to the methods described, depending on the type of defects detected, the range of applicability, etc. The authors also shared their speculations on current trends and the possible path for further development and research in the field of solar cell defect analysis using imaging.
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electronic, Photonics and Microsystems, Department ofElectronic and Photonic Metrology, Division of Thin Film Technologies, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław,Poland
Wind turbines are among the key equipment needed for eco-friendly generation of electricity. Maintaining wind turbines in excellent technical condition is extremely important not only for safety but also for efficient operation. Studies indicate that defects in the external structure of a turbine blade reduce energy production efficiency. This research investigated the potential of the terrestrial laser scanning technology to examine the technical conditions of wind turbine blades. The main aim of the study was to examine whether terrestrial laser scanning measurements can be valuable for wind turbine blade condition surveying. The investigation was based on the radiometric analyses of point clouds, which forms the novelty of the present study. Condition monitoring focuses on the detection of defects, such as cracks, cavities, or signs of erosion. Moreover, this study consisted of two stages. The next objective entailed the development and examination of two different measurement methods. It was then identified which method is more advantageous by analysing their effectiveness and other economic considerations.
The article presents a comprehensive study of a visual-inertial simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm designed for aerial vehicles. The goal of the research is to propose an improvement to the particle filter SLAM system that allows for more accurate and robust navigation of unknown environments. The authors introduce a modification that utilizes a homography matrix decomposition calculated from the camera frame-to-frame relationships. This procedure aims to refine the particle filter proposal distribution of the estimated robot state. In addition, the authors implement a mechanism of calculating a homography matrix from robot displacement, which is utilized to eliminate outliers in the frame-to-frame feature detection procedure. The algorithm is evaluated using simulation and real-world datasets, and the results show that the proposed improvements make the algorithm more accurate and robust. Specifically, the use of homography matrix decomposition allows the algorithm to be more efficient, with a smaller number of particles, without sacrificing accuracy. Furthermore, the incorporation of robot displacement information helps improve the accuracy of the feature detection procedure, leading to more reliable and consistent results. The article concludes with a discussion of the implemented and tested SLAM solution, highlighting its strengths and limitations. Overall, the proposed algorithm is a promising approach for achieving accurate and robust autonomous navigation of unknown environments.
The article presents the results of research on the development of a method for improving the positioning accuracy of an UAV equipped with a single-frequency GPS receiver for determining the linear elements of exterior orientation in aerial photogrammetry. Thus, the paper presents a computational strategy for improving UAV position determination using the SPP code method and the products of the IGS service. The developed algorithmswere tested in two independent research experiments performed with theUAVplatform on which an AsteRx-m2 UAS single-frequency receiver was installed. As a result of the experiments, it was shown that the use of IGS products in the SPP code method made it possible to improve the accuracy of the linear elements to the level of about ±2.088 m for X coordinate, ±1.547 m for Y coordinate, ±3.712 m for Z coordinate. The paper also shows the trend of changes in the obtained accuracy in determining linear elements of exterior orientation in the form of a linear regression function. Finally, the paper also applies the SBAS corrections model for the improvement of UAV position calculation and determination of linear elements of exterior orientation. In this case, the improvement in the accuracy of determining the linear elements of exterior orientation is about ±1.843 m for X coordinate, ±1.658 m for Y coordinate, ±7.930 m for Z coordinate. As the obtained test results show, the use of IGS products and SBAS corrections in the SPP code method makes it possible to improve the determination ofUAVpositions for the use in aerial photogrammetry. Keywords: UAV, GNSS measurements, linear elements of exterior orientation, accuracy.
Geospatial data obtained using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs) are increasingly used to model the terrain in the coastal zone, in particular in shallow waterbodies (with a depth of up to 1 m). In order to generate a terrain relief, it is important to choose a method for modelling that will allow it to be accurately projected. Therefore, the aim of this article is to present a method for accuracy assessment of topo-bathymetric surface models based on geospatial data recorded by UAV and USV vehicles. Bathymetric and photogrammetric measurements were carried out on the waterbody adjacent to the public beach in Gdynia (Poland) in 2022 using a DJI Phantom 4 RTK UAV and an AutoDron USV. The geospatial data integration process was performed in the Surfer software. As a result, Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) in the coastal zone were developed using the following terrain modelling methods: Inverse Distance to a Power (IDP), Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW), kriging, the Modified Shepard’s Method (MSM) and Natural Neighbour Interpolation (NNI). The conducted study does not clearly indicate any of the methods, as the selection of the method is also affected by the visualization of the generated model. However, having compared the accuracy measures of the charts and models obtained, it was concluded that for this type of data, the kriging (linear model) method was the best. Very good results were also obtained for the NNI method. The lowest value of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) (0.030 m) and the lowest value of the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) (0.011 m) were noted for the GRID model interpolated with the kriging (linear model) method. Moreover, the NNI and kriging (linear model) methods obtained the highest coefficient of determination value (0.999). The NNI method has the lowest value of the R68 measure (0.009 m), while the lowest value of the R95 measure (0.033 m) was noted for the kriging (linear model) method.
This paper presents a novel measurement method and briefly discusses the basic properties of direction of arrival (DoA) measurement in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar system by using orthogonality with time-division multiplexing (TDM), where only one transmitting antenna element is active in each time slot. This paper presents the mathematical model of the TDM-MIMO radar operating at 10 GHz, transmitting a string of pulses, the method of transmitting and receiving the signal, and the method of measuring the angle of arrival of the signal based on the use of the Capon algorithm and its modifications. Finally, the correctness of the theory, algorithm and method of measuring the direction of arrival of the signal is verified by experimental simulation. The work discussed in this paper is of great significance to practically demonstrate the capabilities of the TDM MIMO radar sensor in practical implementations like reconnaissance and electronic warfare systems.
Day-boundary discontinuity (DBD) is an effect present in precise GNSS satellite orbit and clock products originating from the method used for orbit and clock determination. The non-Gaussian measurement noise and data processing in 24 h batches are responsible for DBDs. In the case of the clock product, DBD is a time jump in the boundary epochs of two adjacent batches of processed data and its magnitude might reach a couple of ns. This article presents the four GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) systems DBD analysis in terms of change over an 8 year period. For each of 118 satellites available in this period, the yearly value of DBD was subject to analysis including standard deviation and frequency of outliers. Results show that the smallest DBDs appear in the GPS system, the biggest – for the BeiDou space segment. Moreover, the phenomenon of changes in DBDs over time is clearly seen at the beginning of the analysed period when the magnitude and number of the DBDs were larger than for current, newest clock products
This article proposes an unequivocal method of labeling and numbering the cladding modes propagating in single-mode opticalwaveguides with tilted periodic structures. The unambiguous determination of individual propagating modes in this type of optical fiber is crucial for their use in sensory systems. The selection of the appropriate spectral range and mode determines the sensitivity and measuring range of tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors. The measurement methods proposed by individual research teams using TFBGs as transducers are usually based on the selection of specific modes. Unification of the labeling of modes and their numbering enables comparison of the basic metrological parameters of individual measurement methods and reproduction and verification of the proposed sensors and methods in the laboratories of other scientific and research centers.
Experimental methods are presented for determining the thermal resistance of vertical-cavity surfaceemitting lasers (VCSELs) and the lateral electrical conductivity of their p-type semiconductor layers. A VCSEL structure was manufactured from III-As compounds on a gallium arsenide substrate. Conductivity was determined using transmission line measurement (TLM). Electrical and thermal parameters were determined for various ambient temperatures. The results could be used for computer analysis of VCSELs. Keywords: TLM, thermal resistance, VCSEL, AlGaAs.
Workpiece surface roughness measurement based on traditional machine vision technology faces numerous problems such as complex index design, poor robustness of the lighting environment, and slow detection speed, which make it unsuitable for industrial production. To address these problems, this paper proposes an improved YOLOv5 method for milling surface roughness detection. This method can automatically extract image features and possesses higher robustness in lighting environments and faster detection speed. We have effectively improved the detection accuracy of the model for workpieces located at different positions by introducing Coordinate Attention (CA). The experimental results demonstrate that this study’s improved model achieves accurate surface roughness detection for moving workpieces in an environment with light intensity ranging from 592 to 1060 lux. The average precision of the model on the test set reaches 97.3%, and the detection speed reaches 36 frames per second.
The Helmholtz coil constant (k
h) is a crucial standard in magnetic moment measurement devices for permanent magnet materials. To overcome the problem of lowaccuracy of the direct-current (DC) calibration method, this study used a constant sinusoidal current in the Helmholtz coil and measured the induced voltage of the detection coil with known coil turns and coil area. Subsequently, the k
h was calculated. The noise signal deduction rate in the induction voltage of the detection coil was greater than 99%, its influence on the induction voltage is less than 0.005%, and the repeatability of the calibration results is 0.003% (1δ). The results reveal that the alternating current (AC) method and
orthogonal calculation (OC) can accurately measure the valid values of the voltage signal under the influence of the spatial stray field during the calibration of k
The paper presents the design of a specific type of instrumented wheelset intended for continuous measuring of lateral and vertical wheel-rail interaction forces
Q, in accordance with regulations EN 14363 and UIC 518. The platform is a standard heavy wheelset BA314 with an axle-load of 25 tons. The key problems of smart instrumentalization are solved by the use of the wheel’s numerical FEM model, which provides a significant cost reduction in the initial stage of development of the instrumented wheelset. The main goal is to ensure high measuring accuracy. The results of the FEM calculations in ANSYS are basis for identification of the distribution of strains on the internal and external side of the wheel disc. Consequently, the most convenient radial distances for installation of strain gauges of Wheatstone measuring bridges are determined. In the next stage, the disposition, number and ways of interconnection of strain gauges in the measuring bridges are defined. Ultimately, an algorithm for inverse determination of parameters
Q based on mixed signals from the measuring bridges is developed. The developed solution is validated through tests on specific examples, using a created numerical FEM model. A high accuracy of estimation of unknown parameters
Q is obtained with an error of less than 4.5%, while the error of estimation of their ratio
Y/Q is less than 2%. Therefore, the proposed solution can be efficiently used in the instrumentalization of the considered wheelset, while the problems of its practical implementation will be the subject of further research.
The paper presents an evaluation with the Type A and B methods for standard uncertainties of coefficients of a polynomial function of order
k determined by
n points obtained by measurement of input and output quantities. A method for deriving a posteriori distributions of function coefficients based on the transformation of estimator distributions without assuming any a priori distributions is presented. It was emphasized that since the correct values of the standard uncertainty of type A depend on the √
n-k-3 and not on the p √
n-k-1, therefore, with a small number of measurement points, the use of the classical approach leads to a significant underestimation of uncertainty. The relationships for direct evaluation with the type B method of uncertainties caused by uncorrected systematic additive (offset error) and multiplicative (gain error) effects in the measurements of both input and output quantities are derived. These standard uncertainties are determined on the basis of the manufacturers’ declared values of the maximum permissible errors of the measuring instruments used. A Monte Carlo experiment was carried out to verify the uncertainties of the coefficients and quadratic function, the results of which fully confirmed the results obtained analytically.
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each), • research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages), • papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages), • short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works. The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.
Figures Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg. As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.
Equation All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).
References The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.
References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. ; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).
Submission process Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only. The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES. The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres. Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style. An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.
Other information It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: email@example.com. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt. The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelinesfor manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.
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