Metrology and Measurement Systems is an international journal, peer-reviewed, quarterly-published, launched in 1988. Since 2001 it has appeared in English. The journal is published both in the paper and electronic form on the Electronic Library platform, Polish Academy of Sciences.
The Journal is indexed in Journal Citation Reports and Web of Science Master Journal List (Clarivate Analytics formerly Thomson Reuters), INSPEC, Scopus, Index Copernicus, Google Scholar, CSA Technology Research, High Tech Research Database, Solid State & Superconductivity.
Impact Factor for 2022*: 1.0
Contributions are invited on all aspects of research, development and applications of the measurement science and associated technology.
The list of topics covered includes: theory, general principles and applications of measurement; measurement of physical, chemical and biological quantities; medical measurements; sensors and transducers; measurement data acquisition; measurement signal transmission; processing and data analysis; measurement systems and embedded systems; design, manufacture and evaluation of measurement instrumentation.
The average publication cycle is 6 months.
*According to Journal Citation Reports
ISSN 2080-9050, e-ISSN 2300-1941
Polish Academy of Sciences Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation
Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland Bruno ANDO University of Catania, Italy Martin BURGHOFF Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany Marcantonio CATELANI University of Florence, Italy Numan DURAKBASA Vienna University of Technology, Austria Janusz GAJDA AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland Domenico GRIMALDI University of Calabria, Italy Laszlo KISH Texas A&M University, USA Juha KOSTAMOVAARA University of Oulu, Finland Eduard LLOBET Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain Alex MASON Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand Janusz MROCZKA Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland Antoni ROGALSKI Military University of Technology, Poland Wiesław WOLIŃSKI Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
The Kibble balance experiment is used to redefine the kilogram as a unit of mass based on the Planck constant. To demonstrate and understand the basic principle of the Kibble balance, the National Institute of Standards (NIS)-Egypt has constructed a prototype Kibble balance that can measure gram-level masses with 0.01% relative uncertainty. Through the construction of this prototype, the challenges can be studied and addressed to overcome the weaknesses of NIS’s prototype. This study presents the design and construction of the prototype Kibble balance. It also focuses on the design and performance of the magnetic system, which is a crucial element of the Kibble balance. Analytical modeling and finite element analysis were used to evaluate and improve the magnet system. Several other aspects were also discussed, including the yoke’s material and enhancing the magnetic profile within the air gap of the magnet system. Over a vertical distance of 30 mm inside the air gap, the magnetic flux density was found to be 0.3 T, and the uniformity was found to be 8 x 10
Is this article simulation of statistical measurements is performed on the basis of which the analysis of the standard deviation of the obtained results is carried out. It is shown that the standard deviation is minimum and independent from measurement duration while an object is in the state of equilibrium. For objects in a stationary non-equilibrium state the standard deviation depends on the duration measurements and the parameters of the state. The influence of these factors on the standard deviation is assessed with equation which includes the relaxation time. The value of the relaxation time is determined by approximating the energy spectrum of the studied signals. The analysis of energy spectra showed that the spectrum of white noise is inherent in objects in equilibrium; the flicker component of the spectrum occurs when the state of the object deviates from equilibrium.
The MEMS inclinometer integrates a tri-axis accelerometer and a tri-axis gyroscope to solve the perceived dynamic inclinations through a complex data fusion algorithm, which has been widely used in the fields of industrial, aerospace, and monitoring. In order to ensure the validity of the measurement results of MEMS inclinometers, it is necessary to determine their dynamic performance parameters. This study proposes a conical motion-based MEMS inclinometer dynamic testing method, and the motion includes the classical conical motion, the attitude conical motion, and the dual-frequency conical motion. Both the frequency response and drift angle of MEMS inclinometers can be determined. Experimental results show that the conical motions can accelerate the angle drift of MEMS inclinometers, which makes them suitable for dynamic testing ofMEMSinclinometers. Additionally, the tilt sensitivity deviation of theMEMS inclinometer by the proposed method and the turntable-based method is less than 0.26 dB.We further provide the research for angle drift and provide discussion.
The sequential multilateration principle is often adopted in geometric error measurement of CNC machine tools. To identify the geometric errors, a single laser tracker is placed at different positions to measure the length between the target point and the laser tracker. However, the measurement of each laser tracker position is not simultaneous and measurement accuracy is mainly subject to positioning repeatability of the machine tool. This paper attempts to evaluate the measurement uncertainty of geometric errors caused by the positioning repeatability of the machine tool and the laser tracker spatial length measurement error based on the Monte Carlo method. Firstly, a direct identification method for geometric errors of CNC machine tools based on geometric error evaluation constraints is introduced, combined with the geometric error model of a three-axis machine tool. Moreover, uncertainty contributors caused by the repeatability of positioning of numerically controlled axes of the machine tool and the laser length measurement error are analyzed. The measurement uncertainty of the geometric error and the volumetric positioning error is evaluated with the Monte Carlo method. Finally, geometric error measurement and verification experiments are conducted. The results show that the maximum volumetric positioning error of the machine tool is 84.1 μm and the expanded uncertainty is 5.8 μm (�� = 2). The correctness of the geometric error measurement and uncertainty evaluation method proposed in this paper is verified compared with the direct geometric error measurement methods.
Due to high performance demands of grid-connected pulse-width modulation (PWM) converters in power applications, backstepping control (BSC) has drawn wide research interest for its advantages, including high robustness against parametric variations and external disturbances. In order to guarantee these advantages while providing high static and dynamic responses, in this work, a robust BSC (RBSC) with consideration of grid-connected PWM converter parameter uncertainties is proposed for three-phase grid-connected four-leg voltage source rectifiers (GC-FLVSR). The proposed RBSC for GC-FLVSR is composed of four independent controllers based on the Lyabonov theory that control DC bus voltage and input currents simultaneously. As a result, unit power factor, stable DC-bus voltage, sinusoidal four-leg rectifier input currents with lower harmonics and zero-sequence (ZS), and natural currents can be accurately achieved. Furthermore, the stability and robustness against load, DC capacitor, and filter inductance variations can be tested. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed RBSC compared to the PI control (PIC) have been validated by processor-inthe- loop (PIL) co-simulation using the STM32F407 discovery-development-board as an experimental study.
The most crucial transmission components utilized in rotating machinery are gears and bearings. In a gearbox, the bearings support the force acting on the gears. Compound Faults in both the gears and bearings may cause heavy vibration and lead to early failure of components. Despite their importance, these compound faults are rarely studied since the vibration signals of the compound fault system are strongly dominated by noise. This work proposes an intelligent approach to fault identification of a compound gear-bearing system using a novel Bessel kernel-based Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) called the Bessel transform. The Time-frequency images extracted using the Bessel transform are used as an input to the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), which classifies the faults. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated with a case study, and a testing efficiency of 94% is achieved. Further, the proposed method is compared with the other TFDs and found to be effective.
Temperature rise of the hub motor in distributed drive electric vehicles (DDEVs) under long-time and overload operating conditions brings parameter drift and degrades the performance of the motor. A novel online parameter identification method based on
improved teaching-learning-based optimization (ITLBO) is proposed to estimate the stator resistance, ��-axis inductance,
��-axis inductance, and flux linkage of the hub motor with respect to temperature rise. The effect of temperature rise on the stator resistance, ��-axis inductance,
��-axis inductance, and magnetic flux linkage is analysed. The hub motor parameters are identified offline. The proposed ITLBO algorithm is introduced to estimate the parameters online. The Gaussian perturbation function is employed to optimize the TLBO algorithm and improve the identification speed and accuracy. The mechanisms of group learning and low-ranking elimination are established. After that, the proposed ITLBO algorithm for parameter identification is employed to identify the hub motor parameters online on the test bench. Compared with other parameter identification algorithms, both simulation and experimental results show the proposed ITLBO algorithm has rapid convergence and a higher convergence precision, by which the robustness of the algorithm is effectively verified. Keywords: parameters identification, teaching–learning-based optimization, hub motor, temperature rise.
To address the problem that a deep neural network needs a sufficient number of training samples to have a good prediction performance, this paper firstly used the Z-Map algorithm to generate a simulated profile of the milling surface and construct an optical simulation model of surface imaging to supplement the training sample size of the neural network. Then the Deep CORAL model was used to match the textures of the simulated samples and the actual samples across domains to solve the problem that the simulated samples were not in the same domain as the actual milling samples. Experimental results have shown that high texture matching could be achieved between optical simulation images and actual images, laying the foundation for expanding the actual milled workpiece images with the simulation images. The deep convolutional neural model Xception was used to predict the classification of six classes of data sets with the inclusion of simulation images, and the accuracy was improved from 86.48% to 92.79% compared with the model without the inclusion of simulation images. The proposed method solves the problem of the need for a large number of samples for deep neural networks and lays the foundation for similar methods to predict surface roughness for different machining processes.
The paper presents special forms of an ensemble of classifiers for analysis of medical images based on application of deep learning. The study analyzes different structures of convolutional neural networks applied in the recognition of two types of medical images: dermoscopic images for melanoma and mammograms for breast cancer. Two approaches to ensemble creation are proposed. In the first approach, the images are processed by a convolutional neural network and the flattened vector of image descriptors is subjected to feature selection by applying different selection methods. As a result, different sets of a limited number of diagnostic features are generated. In the next stage, these sets of features represent input attributes for the classical classifiers: support vector machine, a random forest of decision trees, and softmax. By combining different selection methods with these classifiers an ensemble classification system is created and integrated by majority voting. In the second approach, different structures of convolutional neural networks are directly applied as the members of the ensemble. The efficiency of the proposed classification systems is investigated and compared to medical data representing dermoscopic images of melanoma and breast cancer mammogram images. Thanks to fusion of the results of many classifiers forming an ensemble, accuracy and all other quality measures have been significantly increased for both types of medical images.
The article reviews the results of experimental tests assessing the impact of process parameters of additive manufacturing technologies on the geometric structure of free-form surfaces. The tests covered surfaces manufactured with the Selective Laser Melting additive technology, using titanium-powder-based material (Ti6Al4V) and Selective Laser Sintering from polyamide PA2200. The evaluation of the resulting surfaces was conducted employing modern multiscale analysis, i.e., wavelet transformation. Comparative studies using selected forms of the mother wavelet enabled determining the character of irregularities, size of morphological features and the indications of manufacturing process errors. The tests provide guidelines and allow to better understand the potential in manufacturing elements with complex, irregular shapes.
The temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra has been studied for the HgCdTe epilayer. At low temperatures, the signal has plenty of band-tail states and shallow/deep defects which makes it difficult to evaluate the material bandgap. In most of the published reports, the photoluminescence spectrum containing multiple peaks is analyzed using a Gaussian fit to a particular peak. However, the determination of the peak position deviates from the energy gap value. Consequently, it may seem that a blue shift with increasing temperature becomes apparent. In our approach, the main peak was fitted with the expression proportional to the product of the joint density of states and the Boltzmann distribution function. The energy gap determined on this basis coincides in the entire temperature range with the theoretical Hansen dependence for the assumed Cd molar composition of the active layer. In addition, the result coincides well with the bandgap energy determined on the basis of the cut-off wavelength at which the detector response drops to 50% of the peak value.
A contactless laser hygrometer based on light absorption by H2O molecules at 1392.5 nm is described. However, measurement results can be affected by optical noise when applied to an atmospheric tunnel or glass cuvette. The noises (occurring in the form of periodic fringes in the recorded spectrum) come from unexpected interference of the light beams reflected from surfaces of the windows or other optical elements. The method of their suppression is described in this article. It is based on wavelength modulation and signal averaging over the fringes period. Also, an experiment confirming the usefulness of this method is described here.
A device with a frequency-modulated output signal has been developed to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of measuring moisture content in crude oil and petroleum products in the range of 0~20%. The main element of the device is a self-oscillator transducer based on a transistor structure with negative differential resistance. A capacitive sensor in the form of a capacitive cylindrical structure with cylindrical electrodes was used to determine moisture content in crude oil and petroleum products. Electric permittivity of a two-component mixture of oil and water was estimated and the capacitance of the humidity-sensitive capacitive cylindrical structure with cylindrical electrodes was calculated. An electrical diagram of the device for measuring and controlling the humidity of crude oil and petroleum products has been developed. The relative error of converting the humidity of oil and petroleum products into capacitance which was caused by the change in oil temperature, was determined to be 0.225%. Values of relative errors of the device for measuring the humidity of oil and petroleum products are as follows: 1.355 · 10
-5% is caused by instability of the oscillator frequency, 0.01% is caused by fluctuations in the supply voltage of the self-oscillator transducer, 0.05% is caused by a change in ambient temperature by 1°C. For the developed device, which used errors of the first and second type, the reliability of humidity control of oil and petroleum products has been determined to be 0.9591.
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each), • research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages), • papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages), • short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works. The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.
Figures Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg. As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.
Equation All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).
References The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.
References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. ; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).
Submission process Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only. The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES. The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres. Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style. An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.
Other information It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: email@example.com. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt. The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelinesfor manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.
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