Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2022 | vol. 29 | No 4

Abstrakt

As part of the work the high-pressure sorptomat - a novel apparatus for sorption tests under conditions of high gas pressure was developed. The sorption measurement is carried out using the volumetric method, and the precise gas flow pressure regulator is used in the device to ensure isobaric conditions and regulate the sorption pressure in the range of 0-10 MPa. The uniqueness and high precision of sorption measurements with the constructed apparatus are ensured by the parallel use of many pressure sensors with a wide measurement range as well as high precision of measurement - due to the use of precise pressure sensors. The obtained results showed, i.a. that the time of reaching the isobaric conditions of the measurement is about 6-7 seconds and it is so short that it can be considered a quasi-step initiation of sorption processes. Moreover, the results of the measurement pressure stabilization tests, during the CO 2 sorption test on activated carbon, have shown that the built-in pressure regulator works correctly and ensures isobaric sorption measurement conditions with the precision of pressure stabilization of ±1% of the measurement pressure. The maximum range of sorption measurement using the high-pressure sorptomat is 0-86400 cm 3/g, and the maximum measurement uncertainty is ±2% of the measured value. The activated carbon sample used for the tests was characterized by a high sorption capacity, reaching 104.4 cm 3/g at a CO 2 pressure of 1.0 MPa.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mateusz Kudasik
1
Łukasz Anioł
1
Norbert Skoczylas
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Reymonta 27, 30-059 Cracow, Poland

Abstrakt

In this study, a digital manometer was used as a transfer standard to perform calibration of a pneumatic pressure balance. The same pressure balance was calibrated with the cross-floating method based on falling rate determination (FRD). Differences among the effective area results show an agreement of less than 10 ppm between the digital manometer-assisted calibration (DMAC) method and the FRD method. The method in which a digital pressure gauge is used as a transfer standard not only facilitates calibration but also enables the automation of pressure balance calibration. Full automation of pressure balance calibration requires an automatic mass loading system for both the reference instrument and the device under test. Since there is a lot of different kinds of pressure balances, it is nearly impossible for a pressure metrology laboratory to have an automatic mass-handler system for every type of pressure balance. Therefore, a more efficient way in which automated mass-handler systems are not required i.e., a semi-automatic calibration system, is designed. For that purpose, two different calibration procedures, increasing-decreasing cycles, and pressurize-vent (P-V) procedures are performed and compared. The equivalence of procedure results makes the semi-automated calibration design of pressure balances possible. The most distinguishing advantages of a semi-automated calibration system are the applicability to any type of pressure balance and low cost compared to full automation.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ahmet Türk
1
Abdullah Hamarat
1
Yasin Durgut
1

  1. TÜBITAK Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü, TÜBITAK Gebze Yerleskesi P.K.54 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey

Abstrakt

In recent years, the Steer-by-Wire (SBW) technology has been gaining popularity and replacing classical steering systems. It plays the most crucial role in autonomous cars where the vehicle must perform maneuvers on its own without driver’s intervention. One of the key components of this system is the steering wheel angle sensor (SAS). Its reliability and performance may affect driver’s life and health. The purpose of this paper is to show a test system to comprehensively evaluate the performance of the steering wheel angle sensor in the SBW system during real-world maneuvers and show how SAS parameters such as accuracy of angle, angular speed etc. affect car trajectory resulting in hit cones.
For this purpose, a test system was built, with the use of virtual test drives based on CarMaker software, CANoe and VTSystem hardware. In order to evaluate its performance, the errors introduced by the system were determined. Additionally, using the realised test system, three commercial steering wheel angle sensors were tested and compared during a virtual test drive. Their errors were determined, as well as their performance in the SBW technology and the consistency of the obtained results with the parameters declared by the manufacturer were verified as well.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Pietruch
1
Andrzej Wetula
2
Andrzej Młyniec
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Biomedical Engineering, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

Abstrakt

A novel measurement method and a brief discussion of basic characteristics of measuring the phase shift angle between two sinusoidal signals of the same frequency are presented in this paper. It contains a mathematical model for using conditional averaging of a delayed signal interfered with noise to measure the phase shift angle. It also provides characteristics of conditional mean values and discusses the effect of random interferences on the accuracy of the phase shift measurement. The way to determine the variance of the conditional mean value, together with the assessment of standard and expanded uncertainty, are described. The uncertainty characteristic shows the complementary properties of the discussed angle measurement principle �� for small absolute values |��| (minimum for �� = 0) relative to the correlation principle, where the minimum measurement uncertainty is present for �� = ��/2. |
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Adam Kowalczyk
1
Anna Szlachta
1

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Metrology and Diagnostic Systems, W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland

Abstrakt

The authors update the issue disassembly-free control and correction of all components of the error of measuring channels with multi-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The main disadvantages of existing methods for automatic control of the parameters of multi-bit ADCs, in particular their nonlinearity, are identified. Methods for minimizing instrumental errors and errors caused by limited internal resistances of closed switches, input and output resistances of active elements are investigated. The structures of devices for determining the multiplicative and nonlinear components of the error of multi-bit ADCs based on resistive dividers built on single-nominal resistors are proposed and analyzed. The authors propose a method for the correction of additive, multiplicative and nonlinear components of the error at each of the specified points of the conversion range during non-disassembly control of the ADC with both types of inputs. The possibility of non-disassembly control, as well as correction of multiplicative and nonlinear components of the error of multi-bit ADCs in the entire range of conversion during their on-site control is proven. ADC error correction procedures are proposed. These procedures are practically invariant to the non-informative parameters of active structures with resistive dividers composed of single-nominal resistors. In the article the prospects of practical implementation of the method of error correction during non-dismantling control of ADC parameters using the possibilities provided by modern microelectronic components are shown. The ways to minimize errors are proposed and the requirements to the choice of element parameters for the implementation of the proposed technical solutions are given. It is proved that the proposed structure can be used for non-disassembly control of multiplicative and nonlinear components of the error of precision instrumentation amplifiers.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tetiana Bubela
1
Roman Kochan
2 3
Łukasz Więcław
2
Vasyl Yatsuk
1
Viktor Kuts
1
Jurij Yatsuk
4

  1. Lviv Polytecnic National University, Department of Information and Measurement Technologies, S. Bandery 12, 79013 Lviv, Ukraine
  2. University of Bielsko-Biala, Department of Informatics and Automation, Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała, Poland
  3. Lviv Polytecnic National University, Department of Specialized Computer Systems, S. Bandery 12, 79013 Lviv, Ukraine
  4. Lviv Polytecnic National University, Department of Computerized Automation Systems, S. Bandery 12, 79013 Lviv, Ukraine

Abstrakt

Research related to photovoltaic panels comprises different topics starting with modelling solar cells, finding new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, testing existing ones or designing of DC/DC converters for MPPT systems and microgrids that incorporate photovoltaic energy sources. In each of the examples above a deep knowledge of photovoltaic panels is required, as well as a reliable measurement system that can deliver continuous, stable light with enough power to meet standard test conditions (STC) and that can ensure repeatable results. Therefore this paper presents a low-cost solar simulator with a microcontroller-based measurement system, that can be used for various measurements of low-power photovoltaic panels.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marcin Walczak
1
Leszek Bychto
1
Jarosław Kraśniewski
1
Stanisław Duer
2

  1. Koszalin University of Technology, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Faculty of Electronics, 2 Śniadeckich St., 75-453 Koszalin, Poland
  2. Koszalin University of Technology, Department of Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 15–17 Racławicka St., 75-620 Koszalin, Poland

Abstrakt

At the National Institute of Metrological Research (INRIM) an evaluation of a commercial dual source high resistance bridge has been performed. Its two main measurement modes (single measurements and multiple measurements) have been investigated. The best settle time of a 10:1 measurement of high resistance ratio has been estimated to be about three times the time constant of the circuit involving the resistors. This constant, in turn, depends on the highest value resistor. By means of mathematical estimators, suitable numbers of the readings of the detector have been established in order to minimize noises. A compatibility test at 100 TΩ has shown that the best precision of the commercial bridge is achieved utilizing the multiple measurements mode with the auto update function. This mode also allows the characterization of a resistor as a function of the settle time. This characterization can be useful for the owner of the resistor who can request the laboratory to perform the calibration of the resistor with the settle time which is necessary for him.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Iulian Mihai
1
Pier Paolo Capra
1
Flavio Galliana
1

  1. National Institute of Metrological Research, Applied Metrology and Engineering Department, Str. delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin, Italy

Abstrakt

Reference blocks are required for ultrasonic calibration and non-destructive testing (NDT). There are already in existence sets of reference blocks constructed according to American Society for Testing and Materials standards, but as the industry evolves, we need more reference blocks with varied designs. In this study, two reference blocks of steel and aluminum are constructed. These blocks have several sets of flat bottom holes (FBH) with different diameters (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 mm), angles (45° and 90°) and placements. The novel constructed reference blocks are evaluated using the ultrasonic and a displacement measuring interferometer (DMI). They allow for detailed FBH characterization in terms of defining their location, diameter, depth and so on. The two techniques show consistency in the majority of the outcomes. The expanded uncertainty of readings is found to be ± 1.4 µm, according to DMI data. The findings show that the newly constructed blocks could be ideal for evaluating a variety of calibration factors including transducer sensitivity, dead zone, defect size, and depth. Furthermore, they can be used in NDT in various industries such as petroleum pipe production, steel manufacturing and so on.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mirham A.Y. Barakat
1
Mohamed Abdelwahab
2
Alshaimaa Waheed Abdallah
2

  1. Ultrasonic Metrology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards PO Box: 136, Giza code 12211, Tersa Street, Haram, Giza, Egypt
  2. Line & End Secondary Standards Laboratory, National Institute of Standards PO Box: 136, Giza code 12211, Tersa Street, Haram, Giza, Egypt

Abstrakt

The article shows the possibility of using TFBG gratings to measure the radius of curvature of fiber bending in conditions of variable polarization of the introduced light. Most of the modern, stable light sources generate light with a high degree of polarization. Due to the spatial asymmetry, the direction of the light polarization plane affects the spectral parameters of individual modes. For this reason, in the measurement systems using TFBGs presented so far it becomes necessary to determine and control the state of light polarization directly in front of the periodic structure. The article presents the determined spectral parameters of the cladding modes which allow bending measurements regardless of the direction of polarization of the introduced light. Thanks to this, the measuring system can be constructed without providing control of the introduced light polarization angle, which makes its construction simpler. When using TFBGs with an angle of 2°, the accuracy of determining the bending radius in the range from 15 mm to 30 mm when changing the angle of the plane of polarization in the full range is 0.318 mm in the case of changes in the transmission coefficient. For changes in the wavelength of the selected cladding mode, the accuracy is 0.3203 mm, with the input light polarization being changed in the range from 0° (P type) to 90° (S type).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Damian Harasim
1
Sławomir Cięszczyk
1

  1. Lublin University of Technology, Electrical and Information Technology Department, Nadbystrzycka Str. 36D, Lublin, Poland

Abstrakt

Considering the low accuracy and low efficiency of the traditional calibration method for base strain sensitivity of accelerometers, a novel base strain sensitivity calibration system with steady harmonic excitation is proposed. The required cantilever beam for calibration is driven by an electromagnetic exciter to generate a base strain varying in a steady harmonic pattern. By applying a Wheatstone bridge circuit, the generated strain with low distortion can be measured. The measurement system with a compensation function can automatically calibrate the base strain sensitivity. The amplitude linearity and frequency response characteristics of the base strain sensitivity in two accelerometers are obtained experimentally, and the uncertainty in the results is 2% ( k = 2).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Chuwei Ye
1

  1. The State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Zhejiang University, 310027, Hangzhou, China

Abstrakt

Non-measured points (NMPs) are one of vital problems in optical measurement. The number and location of NMPs affect the obtained surface texture parameters. Therefore, systematic studying of the NMP is meaningful in understanding the instrument performance and optimizing measurement strategies. This paper investigates the influence of measurement settings on the non-measured points ratio (NMPR) using structured illumination microscopy. It is found that using a low magnification lens, high exposure time, high dynamic range (HDR) lighting levels, and low vertical scanning interval may help reduce the NMPR. In addition, an improved approach is proposed to analyze the influence of NMP on areal surface texture parameters. The analysis indicates that the influence of NMP on some parameters cannot be ignored, especially for extreme height parameters and feature parameters.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zhen Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sophie Gröger
1

  1. Chemnitz University of Technology, Department of Production Measuring Technology, Reichenhainer Straße 70, 09126 Chemnitz, Germany

Abstrakt

Accurate and fast access to Vernier caliper readings is a critical issue in automated verification of Vernier calipers. To address this problem, this paper proposes a machine vision-based algorithm for reading the Vernier caliper’s displayed value. The suggested method first employs threshold segmentation and template matching to determine the region of interest and obtain the main ruler digit position by alternate projection. Then, we apply the improved LeNet5 network to identify the main ruler of the Vernier caliper, Moreover, we developed the first and last inscription method for reading the decimal part of the Vernier caliper and established our data set for model training. Extensive experiments on reading the displayed value have demonstrated our algorithm’s accuracy, which achieves a displayed value reading accuracy of 100%. Compared to other methods, the proposed technique affords better stability and accuracy.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wen-Meng Chen
1
Hong-Xi Wang
1
Guan-Wei Wang
1
Wen-Hong Liang
1

  1. Xi’an Technological University, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an, Shanxi 710021 China

Instrukcja dla autorów



Sample article with Author guidelines



Author guidelines



Types of contributions

Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:

• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).


Manuscript preparation

General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).

The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.


Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.


Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).


References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.


Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220




References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).


Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.


Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.


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