Nauki Techniczne

Chemical and Process Engineering

Zawartość

Chemical and Process Engineering | 2021 | vol. 42 | No 1 |

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Abstrakt

Batch dark fermentation of wheat straw and boiled potato wastes at volatile suspended solids (VSS) 5 g VSS/L are examined and compared. Investigations on dark fermentation of potatowastes and wheat straw were carried out at different pH and OFR (oxygen flow rate) values and inoculum pretreatment. The obtained hydrogen yield from waste potato was 70 mL/g VSS, while for hydrolysed wheat straw it amounted to 80 mL/g VSS. The optimum conditions for potato dark fermentation are acidic pH 6.0 and OFR 1.0 mL/h, while for the wheat straw, optimal conditions are pH 6.4 and OFR 4.6 mL/h. The comparison revealed a significant difference in hydrogen production due to the type of substrate, inoculum stressing and DF conditions applied.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Gaweł Sołowski
1
Izabela Konkol
1
Marwa Shalaby
2
Adam Cenian
1

  1. Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Sciences, Physical Aspects of Ecoenergy Department, 14 Fiszera St., 80-231 Gdańsk, Poland
  2. National Research Center in Cairo, Department of Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant, El Bijouth St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt 12622
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Abstrakt

The paper presents different approaches to the proper and accurate production and modelling (multi- phase reaction) of CaCO3 formation in the most popular, different types of reactors, i.e. continuous reactor (STR – stirred tank reactors, MSMPR – mixed suspension, mixed product removal; tube reactor), a bubble column reactor and a thin film reactor.
Many different methods of calcium carbonate production and their effect on the various characteristics of the product have been presented and discussed. One of the most important, from the point of view of practical applications, is the morphology and size of the produced particles as well as their agglomerates and size distribution. The size of the obtained CaCO3 particles and their agglomerates can vary from nanometers to micrometers. It depends on many factors but the most important are the conditions calcium carbonate precipitation and then stored.
The experimental research was strongly aided by theoretical considerations on the correct description of the process of calcium carbonate precipitation. More than once, the correct modelling of a specific process contributed to the explanation of the phenomena observed during the experiment (i.e. formation of polyforms, intermediate products, etc.).
Moreover, different methods and approaches to the accurate description of crystallization processes as well as main CFD problems has been widely reviewed. It can be used as a basic material to formulation and implementation of new, accurate models describing not only multiphase crystallization processes s taking place in different chemical reactors.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paweł Gierycz
1
Artur Poświata
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstrakt

A series of steps taken to determine a kinetic equation that describes hydrogenation of propene on nickel catalyst is presented in this study. Mixed factorial design approach, belongs to designing of experiments methods was used to plane experiments. The investigations showed that the method applied makes possible determination of the kinetic equation in a relatively fast and cheap manner since only a few measurement points is required. The equation obtained was verified experimentally and statistically. Both tests showed satisfactory precision of anticipated values of the process rate.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Adrian Szałek
1
Mirosław Szukiewicz
1
Elżbieta Chmiel-Szukiewicz
1

  1. Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, al. Powstańców Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
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Abstrakt

Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is a polyester that is particularly useful for tissue engineering appli- cations. Many researchers have focused on the application and characterization of materials made from PGS. Synthesis is often superficially described, and the prepolymer is not characterized before crosslinking. Considering the different functionality of each monomer (glycerine – 3, sebacic acid – 2), materials with a branched structure can be obtained before the crosslinking process. Branched struc- tures are not desirable for elastomers. In this work, method to obtain linear PGS resins is presented. Moreover, synthesis was optimized with the use of the Design of Experiments method for minimizing the degree of branching and maximizing the molecular weight. The process was described via mathe- matical models, which allows to the association of process parameters with product properties. In this work ca. 1kDa and less than 10% branched PGS resin was produced. This resin could be used to make very flexible elastomers because branching is minimized.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Wrzecionek
1
Joanna Howis
1
Paulina H. Marek
1 2
Paweł Ruśkowski
1
Agnieszka Gadomska-Gajadhur
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw, Poland
  2. University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstrakt

The production of ethyl oleate, by homogenous acid esterification of oleic acid with ethanol, have discussed experimentally and via computational simulation in a plug flow reactor. An innovative simulation model has developed to predict the esterification reaction performance in an ideal plug flow reactor. The amount of H2SO4 acid catalyst, the initial molar ratio of alcohol to oleic acid, ethanol concentration, reaction temperature, and esterification time have examined their effects on ethyl oleate production and the conversion of oleic acid. Then the simulation extended to examine the esterification reaction kinetics and determine the reaction rate coefficients. The simulation results demonstrate that the increasing of H2SO4 acid, initial molar ratio of ethanol to oleic acid, ethanol concentration, and reaction temperature improved the productivity of the ethyl oleate and reduced the reactor space-time. The kinetics results illustrated that the reaction sensitivity to the temperature unchanging by using higher ethanol concentration and alcohol to oleic acid initial ratio. Lastly, the experimental yields at different conditions were slightly higher from those simulating with average values of 93.62 and 92.29%, respectively, indicating that the phenomenon of back-mixing cannot be ignored in esterification reactors, especially with a relatively high retention time within the reactor.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Suondos K.A. Barno
1
Sarmad A. Rashid
2
Ammar S. Abbas
2

  1. Presidency of the University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  2. Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Instrukcja dla autorów

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via e-mail address office.cpe@pw.edu.pl. When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles. 

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
  • the manuscript mirror in PDF format,
  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
          3. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in concise style in a separate chapter. Presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable.
          4. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript text according. Their graphical form should be of vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, separate files containing each of the drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded onto the journal Web site in one of the following formats: bmp, gif, tiff, jpg, eps. Due to rigid editorial reasons, graphical elements created within MS Word and Excel are not acceptable. The final length of figures should be intended typically for 8 cm (single column) or 16 cm in special cases of rich-detail figures. The basic font size of letters in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final length.  

          Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs should be in gray scale. In case of coloured graphs or photo an additional payment of 300 PLN (72 €) per 1 page containing coloured figures on both sides, or 150 PLN (36 €) per page containing coloured figures on one side will be required.

          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

        5. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate title and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.

        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations

 

The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php.

Examples of citation for:

Articles
Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

Conferences
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.


Suggested Reviewers

Authors are kindly requested to include a list of 3 potential reviewers for their manuscript, with complete contact information. These reviewers must not be from the authors' institutions, or have co-authored with authors of the manuscript.

Payments

Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Executive Editor: dr hab. inż. Paweł Sobieszuk, email address: office.cpe@pw.edu.pl


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