Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2010 | vol. 36 | No 4

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The emission of dust from coal fired furnaces introduces a lot of contamination into the environment, including dangerous metal compounds, which occur as trace elements in hard and brown coal. After the coal is burnt, they are contained in the grains of respirable dust, which creates health hazard. The results of investigations into the distribution of several trace elements in granular composition of ash emitted from CFB boilers used in coal-fired heat and power station are presented. The research material was taken by means of a cascade impactor, enabling a different granulometrie fraction to be separated from a stream of dust that penetrated the electrofilter. The CP-AES method (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy) was used to determine trace elements after prior mineralization of samples by microwave method. The Authors presented the results of measurements and analyses, determining the ranges of trace elements' occurrence in dust, characterizing the distribution in PM,, PM25 and PM10 granulometrie fractions and determining the emission factors.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Konieczyński
Katarzyna Stec
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Artificial small water reservoirs existing over peatbogs of Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland have high ecological value. Planktonie rotifer communities of the reservoirs are characterized by high species diversity, presence of rare species as well as high abundance of periphytic and benthic-pcriphytic forms. Low nutrients concentrations of studied reservoirs confirmed low total rotifers density, presence of indicatory species and high ratio of algaevorous to detritivorous species. The analysis of domination structure of planktonie rotifers showed very low stability of their community and high vulnerability for changes of habitat conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Demetraki-Paleolog
Monika Tarkowska-Kukuryk
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The aim of the study was to assess the degree of soil contamination by PAHs in the area of charcoal kiln basis, located in the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. The concentrations of PAH in soil samples derived from various sampling locations pointed to a strong or a very strong contamination of the ecosystem by these compounds (8,95 μgxg·'-283,53 ugxg'). PAH concentrations in the soil differed significantly between the sampling locations. Analysis of samples from different soil layers (to 30 cm) pointed to a threat of washing out into groundwater. The highest concentrations of PAH corresponded to soil samples collected near kilns (distance of 1.5 m), and were in the range of 17.81 ugxg' - 435.54 ugxg'. PAH content in soil gradually decreased with increasing distance from the kilns to values < I μgxg-'. The analysis of the data from three sampling periods (June-August) pointed to higher concentrations of PAHs in soil collected in the middle of the burning season, what was probably due to their more intense emission and a relatively small amount of precipitation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Lisowska
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We determined the performance of different Circulation Type Classifications (CTCs) to stratify air pollutants concentrations in Polish cities in winter. Our analysis is based on 15 CTCs calculated by COST 733 as well as on 5 manual universally used manual weather type classifications. For this purpose we compared and tested the explained variation (EV) and within-type standard deviation (WSD) methods. Finally, EV method has been chosen for evaluating classifications for daily values of SO2, NO2, PM I O and CO as well as vertical dispersion conditions obtained from SODAR data. We also presented the methodology of choosing smog episode days based on 90-percentile values. For the winter smog episodes data from Krakow different classifications have been compared using Gini coefficient method. The best results for separate air pollution data series as well as for smog episode days were obtained for Hess-Brezowski Gro/3wetterlagen classification (HBGWL). Moreover, good results were obtained for the based on principal component analysis PCACA classification, Polish Niedzwiedz TCN2I, modified Polish Litynski LITTc, modified Lamb LWT2, and three modified HBGWL (GWTC26, OGWL, OGWLSLP) classifications. The same classifications except for HBGWL are good for SODAR data. For the best CTCs, the differences between various classes are visible, however a big scattering is still observed. Main urban air pollution problems arise in situations when flow with Southerly component is observed. Correlations between air pollution data and SODAR data (calculated for marginal means obtained for different classes) confirm a negative role of both low height of the ground-based inversion and long duration of the low-level elevated inversion in urban areas.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jolanta Godłowska
Anna Monika Tomaszewska
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One of the concepts of the ventilation rate control in buildings with dense and unpredictable occupancies is based on the CO2 measurements. There are many limitations regarding the validity of CO2 measurement inputs as suitable to the ventilation rate control. Verifying research has been conducted in an air-conditioned auditorium, in the real conditions at altered ventilation air thermal parameters and variable occupancy. The CO2 and the number concentrations of the fine and coarse aerosol particles(> 0.3 μm) and bioaerosol particles (bacteria and staphylococci) as well as the indoor air thermal parameters were measured in the individual sectors of the occupied area. The sensory assessments and instrumental determinations of the acceptability of indoor air quality (ACC) were also performed. The ventilation control strategy based, apart from the CO2 measurements, on the continuous monitoring of the perceived air quality (PAQ) in the auditorium sectors has been suggested. The PAQ monitoring could be accomplished by aerosol concentration measurements and the ACC instrumental determinations. This strategy should ensure a desired PAQ in sectors which benefit the occupants' comfort, health and productivity as well as energy savings not only in the case of its implementation in the considered auditorium.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bernard Połednik
Marzenna Dudzińska
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This work determined the solid-water distribution coefficient Kd, the Freundlich constant KF and the organic carbon normalized coefficient K0c of ibuprofen in natural, aquifer sediments. They are characterized as silt sediments with different clay and sand fraction contents varied in specific surface areas. Content of organic carbon and pH are on the same level. For determining sorption coefficients values of ibuprofen in sediments, its concentration was measured in the aqueous and calculated in the solid phase. Batch tests were conducted following OECD Guideline 106. The resulting Kd values ranged between 1.14 and 2.29 L/kg, ~ between 0.25 and 5.48 and Koc between 1.22 and 2.53 for ibuprofen in sediments SI and S2, respectively. These experiments proved that the presence of clay minerals beside organic carbon and pH might be relevant in sorption of ibuprofen in sediments. A comparison of experimentally determined Koc with modelled Koc calculated on the base of octanol-water partitioning coefficient K0w shows that the prediction of sorption behaviour cannot be based only on Kow· This is probably due to the fact that these approaches well describe hydrophobic interactions, but fail to predict sorption of polar and ionic compounds.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Styszko
Katarzyna Sosonowska
Piotr Wojtanowicz
Janusz Gołaś
Jerzy Górecki
Mariusz Macherzyński
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The paper deals with examination of financial profitability of the introduction of rainwater utilization system (RWUS) in multi-family residential buildings. The aim of the work was to build a simulation model of such system and mak_e an LCC analysis of some options of rainwater utilization system. The proposed conception of a new method of selecting the most cost-effective option of RWUS includes: building of simulation model of such system, making the LCC analysis and using a scenario analysis for supporting decision making process with uncertainty. This new method has been applied to a dwelling house in Poland. The results obtained from the analysis demonstrate the unprofitabiliry of the introduction o fRWUS in multi-family residential buildings for the adopted location in Poland. The presented method can be used by individual designers and managers to decide on the selection of the most appropriate water supplying option for a specific location.
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Authors and Affiliations

Daniel Słyś
Tadeusz Bewszko
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the group of recalcitrants that on reaching wastewater can irreversibly inhibit some sensitive biological processes in activated sludge such as nitrification. This situation leads to wastewater treatment failure due to the influence of these substances on bacteria responsible for important biochemical processes. Observation of the changes in bacterial diversity using molecular tools, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), could be the first step in finding a way of preventing wastewater treatment failure. The aim of this experiment was to monitor bacterial biodiversity in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) dealing with synthetic wastewater contaminated with high concentration of petroleum organic compounds (POCs) and to study the influence of POCs contamination on bacterial changeability in activated sludge. COD removal in investigated membrane bioreactors was at a level of 93%. The organics removal efficiency was not affected by the maximal tested dose of petroleum contamination ( l OOO μl POCs/l of wastewater) and the MBRs wastewater treatment performance was undisturbed. DGGE analysis revealed that the biodiversity fluctuated slightly in control MBR, while in experimental MBR the biodiversity index decreased drastically after adding the highest experimental concentration of POCs. These results suggest that concentrations of POCs at levels from 50 μl/l to 500 μl/l stimulate biodiversity growth, while the concentration I OOO μI POCs/1 of wastewater seems to inhibit the most sensitive processes in wastewater treatment by influencing the bacterial biocenosis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Ziembińska
Sławomir Ciesielski
Jarosław Wiszniowski

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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