Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 129-138
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0012-4

Słowa kluczowe:
SMA
martenistic transformation
measuring stand
SMA characteristics

Paper deals with examinations of properties of shape memory alloy actuators. Authors describe design of own laboratory stand for obtaining electro-thermo-mechanical characteristics of SMA wires (maximum length 900 mm). The stand allows for semi-automatic measurements of voltage and current (supplying the actuator), temperature of wire and its extension. Data acquisition and control signals are realized by PC computer. All elements of the measuring system are connected by GPIB network (IEEE 488.2 standard). Control program for static measurements was written in G language (LabVIEW environment). Temperature is measured using infrared camera Flir A325. Displacement measurement system contains optical sensor (converting piston movement into series of pulses), pulses counter, PWM signal generator (PWM signal fulfillment is proportional to number of pulses), lowpass filter and buffer conditioning external signal. For dynamic measurements data recording is performed using digital oscilloscope Tektronix MSO 2024 equipped with four separated channels and digital filter. Wide range of examinations of several SMA wires allowed for drawing its exploitative characteristic helpful for practical use. It shows length change of actuator as a function of mechanical load (Fig. 10). Finally some example static as well as dynamic characteristics are presented and short discussion is carried out.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 139-148
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0013-3

Słowa kluczowe:
optimization
hysteresis
Jiles-Atherton model
particle swarm optumization method

In the paper an algorithm and computer code for the identification of the hysteresis parameters of the Jiles-Atherton model have been presented. For the identification the particle swarm optimization method (PSO) has been applied. In the optimization procedure five design variables has been assumed. The computer code has been elaborated using Delphi environment. Three types of material have been examined. The results of optimization have been compared to experimental ones. Selected results of the calculation for different material are presented and discussed.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 149-164
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0014-2

Słowa kluczowe:
matrix rectifier
one-cycle control
unitary power factor
vector operation

In the paper an algorithm and computer code for the identification of the hysteresis parameters of the Jiles-Atherton model have been presented. For the identification the particle swarm optimization method (PSO) has been applied. In the optimization procedure five design variables has been assumed. The computer code has been elaborated using Delphi environment. Three types of material have been examined. The results of optimization have been compared to experimental ones. Selected results of the calculation for different material are presented and discussed. A novel vector operated one-cycle control matrix rectifier (OCC-MR) is proposed in this paper. Matrix rectifier (MR) is a generalized buck three-phase AC-DC converter with four-quadrant operation capability. MR can also be the front-stage circuit of AC-DC-AC equivalent structure of MC. One-cycle control (OCC) is a nonlinear control technique, which integrates modulation algorithm and control strategy. By applying OCC to current control loop, the OCC-MR achieves balance only in a switching cycle,and realizes unitary input power factor. Furthermore, vector operation of OCC results In minimum switching losses. In order to make up for the insufficiency of OCC on load disturbance suppression, a PID controller is added onto output voltage control to improve load regulation. The OCC-MR features great simplicity, fast dynamic response and good immunity on input disturbance. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a systematic simulation of OCC-MR is implemented by means of Matlab/Simulink. Both static state performance and dynamic state performance of OCC-MR are discussed deeply. The simulation results have proved theoretical analysis of the vector operation of OCC-MR, and the control effects are satisfactory.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 165-188
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0015-1

Słowa kluczowe:
induction motor
short circuit
fault-tolerant control
fault diagnostic

This paper describes a fault-tolerant controller (FTC) of induction motor (IM) with inter-turn short circuit in stator phase winding. The fault-tolerant controller is based on the indirect rotor field oriented control (IRFOC) and an observer to estimate the motor states, the amount of turns involved in short circuit and the current in the short circuit. The proposed fault controller switches between the control of the two components of measured stator current in the synchronously rotating reference frame and the control of the two components of estimated current in the case of faulty condition when the estimated current in the short circuit is not destructive of motor winding. This technique is used to eliminate the speed and the rotor flux harmonics and to assure the decoupling between the rotor flux and torque controls. The results of the simulation for controlling the speed and rotor flux of the IM demonstrate the applicability of the proposed FTC.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 189-198
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0016-0

Słowa kluczowe:
optimisation
fixed-point theorem
hysteresis
parameter estimation

The fixed-point theorem is widely used in different engineering applications. The present paper focuses on its applications in optimisation. A Matlab toolbox, chich implements the branch-and-bound optimisation method based on the fixed-point theorem, is used for solving different real-life test problems, including estimation of model parameters for the Jiles-Atherton model.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 199-210
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0017-z

Słowa kluczowe:
turbogenerator
end winding inductances
end winding leakage inductance

The paper introduces a comprehensive investigation in end winding inductances of large two-pole turbo-generators. With the aid of an analytic-numeric approach, where Neumann's formula is applied, the influence of geometric characteristics of double-layer stator end windings with involute shape is analysed. This parameter study results in approximation formulas for the stator self and mutual inductances at stand level as well as for the common used end winding leakage inductance. In order to consider field affecting components as pressure plate, flux shield, rotor shaft and rotor retaining ring, finite elements models for two machines (250 MVA and 1150 MVA) are created and computed. The results are integrated in the developed approximation formulas. Finally the simulation results of machine 1 are compared to the data of two different measurements. All approaches introduced in this paper show good correlation. The high speed of the analytic-numeric calculation is combined with the accuracy and opportunity to consider field affecting components within the extensive finite element computation successfully.

7
Conformal mapping approach for permanent magnet synchronous machines: on the modeling of saturation

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 211-220
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0018-y

Słowa kluczowe:
conformal mapping
air gap permeance
magnetic field
SM-PMSM
torque computation

In the electromagnetic field simulation of modern servo drives, the computation of higher time and space harmonics is essential to predict torque pulsations, radial forces, ripple torques and cogging torque. Field computation by conformal map ping (CM) techniques is a time-effective method to compute the radial and tangential field components. In the standard CM approach, computational results of cogging torque simulations as well as overload operations observe deviations to nonlinear finite element (FE) simulations due to the neglection of slot leakage and saturation effects. This paper presents an extension of the classical CM. Additional CM parameters are computed from single finite element computations so as to consider both effects listed above in the model over a wide operation range of the electrical drive. The proposed approach is applied to a surface permanent magnet synchronous machine (SM-PMSM), and compared to numerical results obtained by finite element analysis (FEA). An accuracy similar to that of FE simulations is obtained with however the low computation time that is characteristic for analytical models.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 221-237
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0019-x

Słowa kluczowe:
resonant-circuit design
impedance transformation
inductor quality factor
loaded quality factor
Class A
class AB
class B
class C

In the paper an improved method of calculation of the inductance and capacitances in the ?1 circuit for Class A, AB, B, and C resonant power amplifiers is presented. This method is based on an assumption that the quality factor of the inductor is inite and the capacitors are lossless. The input parameters for calculations are the amplifier load resistance, the transistor load resistance, the quality factor of the inductor, the loaded quality factor of the designed circuit, and the operating frequency. The presented method allows reducing the required regulation range of ?1 circuits elements In built resonant amplifiers as compared to the traditional calculation methods assuming lossless capacitors and inductor. This advantage is important, in particular, for long- and medium-wave transistor power amplifiers, where capacitances in ?1 circuits are high comparing to typical trimming capacitors.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 239-250
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0020-4

Słowa kluczowe:
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)
real and reactive power
Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)
Bacterial Foraging (BF) algorithm

Transmission line loss minimization in a power system is an important research issue and it can be achieved by means of reactive power compensation. The unscheduled increment of load in a power system has driven the system to experience stressed conditions. This phenomenon has also led to voltage profile depreciation below the acceptable secure limit. The significance and use of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices and capacitor placement is in order to alleviate the voltage profile decay problem. The optimal value of compensating devices equires proper optimization technique, able to search the optimal solution with less computational burden. This paper presents a technique to provide simultaneous or individual controls of basic system parameter like transmission voltage, impedance and phase angle, thereby controlling the transmitted power using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) based on Bacterial Foraging (BF) algorithm. Voltage stability level of the system is defined on the Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI) of the lines. The IEEE 14-bus system is used as the test system to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed system. The test result showed that the ocation of UPFC improves the voltage profile and also minimize the real power loss.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 251-266
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0021-3

Słowa kluczowe:
induction motors
single-phase
circuit modelling
simulation
starting quality factor

The paper presents a modelling mathematical tool for prediction of dynamic and steady-states operation of the single-phase capacitor induction motor for different values of the capacitor capacitance and different frequency of voltage supply at no-load and rated load conditions. Developed mathematical model of the capacitor induction motor was implemented for calculation using Matlab/Simulink software. Presented simulation results may be utilized to achieve better starting quality of single-phase capacitor induction motors.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 267-276
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0022-2

Słowa kluczowe:
solid-rotor
induction motor
rotor-end factor
eddy currents

The efficiency of the solid-rotor induction machines depends on axial length of rotor (including the end-regions). Determination of the best axial length is problematic because of current density distribution in the end-regions and also because of absence of dedicated methods and models. This work proposes a method that circumvents this difficulty. It is based on the numerical determination of a dimensionless rotor-end factor using a combination of three- and two-dimensional finite element models restricted to the motor rotor. Such the end factor can be used in both analytical and numerical model of the machine in order to determine the typical performance characteristics. In this work, using this method, we determined an optimal length of the slitted solid rotor of a motor operating at 12 000 rpm, that maximizes the motor efficiency. The results of computations and measurements, carried out on the laboratory test-stand, are presented.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June
| 277-292
| DOI: 10.2478/v10171-012-0023-1

Słowa kluczowe:
AC-DC converter
delta/polygon transformer
power quality
direct torque controlled induction motor drive (DTCIMD)

Design of a delta/polygon-connected autotransformer based 36-pulse ac-dc converter is presented in this paper. The 36-pulse topology is obtained via two paralleled eighteen-pulse ac-dc converters each of them consisting of a nine-phase (nine-leg) diode bridge rectifier. For independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, two interphase transformers (IPT) is designed and implemented. A transformer is designed to supply the rectifier. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. The proposed structure has been implemented and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software under different load conditions. Simulation results confirmed the significant improvement of the power quality indices (consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements) at the point of common coupling. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6-pulse and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 4% for the proposed topology at variable loads.

**ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE)** (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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[2] Idziak P., *Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor*, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., *Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor*, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

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Preparation of manuscript for Archives of Electrical Engineering (AEE)