Validation results of a theoretical model that describes the formation of bromate during ozonation of bromide-containing natural waters are presented. An axial dispersion model integrating the nonideal mixing, mass-transfer and a kinetic model that links ozone decomposition reactions from the Tomiyasu, Fukutomi and Gordon ozone decay model with direct and indirect bromide oxidation reactions, oxidation of natural organicmatter and reactions of dissolved organics and aqueous bromine was verified. Themodel was successfully validated with results obtained both at a laboratory and a full scale. Its applicability to different water supply systems was approved.
In this paper we propose a sensor-based navigation method for navigation of wheeled mobile robot, based on the Kohonen self-organising map (SOM). We discuss a sensor-based approach to path design and control of wheeled mobile robot in an unknown 2-D environment with static obstacles. A strategy of reactive navigation is developed including two main behaviours: a reaching the middle of a collision-free space behaviour, and a goal-seeking behaviour. Each low-level behaviour has been designed at design stage and then fused to determine a proper actions acting on the environment at running stage. The combiner can fuse low-level behaviours so that the mobile robot can go for the goal position without colliding with obstacles one for the convex obstacles and one for the concave ones. The combiner is a softswitch, based on the idea of artificial potential fields, that chooses more then one action to be active with diRerent degrees at each time step. The output of the navigation level is fed into a neural tracking controller that takes into account the dynamics of the mobile robot. The purpose of the neural controller is to generate the commands for the servo-systems of the robot so it may choose its way to its goal autonomously, while reacting in real-time to unexpected events. Computer simulation has been conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed solution by a series of experiments on the emulator of wheeled mobile robot Pioneer-2DX.
The paper is devoted to discussing consequences of the so-called Frisch-Waugh Theorem to posterior inference and Bayesian model comparison. We adopt a generalised normal linear regression framework and weakenits assumptions in order to cover non-normal, jointly elliptical samplingdistributions, autoregressive specifications, additional nuisance parameters andmulti-equation SURE or VAR models. The main result is that inference basedon the original full Bayesian model can be obtained using transformed dataand reduced parameter spaces, provided the prior density for scale or precisionparameters is appropriately modified.
In this article, the author analyzes the terms for ‘woodpecker’ in the dialects of the Slavic languages, using the materials of the General Slavic Linguistic Atlas (OLA). The analysis contains two parts: the fi rst refers to the geographical distribution of the terms for ‘woodpecker’ in the Slavic-speaking area according to the stations covered by the OLA – about 850 settlements in the Slavic-speaking territory; the second part includes etymological and semantic analysis of the individual terms. From the analysis, it can be concluded that there is a great lexical diversity of these terms in the dialects of the Slavic languages, although the term dětьlъ is dominant in the Slavic-speaking area. Lexical diversity largely depended on the surrounding. Other factors, such as the contacts with other linguistic populations, infl uenced too. Recognizing the origin of the individual terms, we can establish that the forms are most often processed by onomatopoeia. But apart from the audacious perception, the motives for naming the woodpecker arose from the visual perception – the color of the feather, as well as the abilities characteristic of this kind of bird.