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Abstract

According to the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and Polish Central Statistical Office the number of students systematically decreases since 2015. This demographic change was a reason to examine students motivation for undertaking their studies in order to improve educational program and to encourage students to peruse higher education. By approaching the subject of “Motivations for Undertaking Special Education Studies in The Opinion of Students at Pedagogical University of Cracow”, the answers were sought to the three following questions: What were the main reasons for choosing studies at Pedagogical University of Cracow? What motivators played a key role for students while selecting field of studies? What student’s personality traits did mainly influence their choice? Research material was collected basing on a self-designed questionnaire. The group of first-year 54 students year were tested, in which 39% didn’t know which specialization they would choose after a one year. The article’s conclusions present key factors motivating students for undertaking Special Education Studies and explain how personality traits influenced their choice.
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Abstract

B a c k g r o u n d: The digital rectal examination (DRE) is a part of the standard physical examination and a useful diagnostic tool for detecting various lower gastrointestinal tract abnormalities. However nowadays it has been observed that medical students might not be properly prepared for performing and interpreting of DRE. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and experience of Polish medical students about DRE. Ma t e r i a l a n d M e t h o d s: A prospective study was carried out using a questionnaire accessible via internet platform. The survey consisted of 12 questions and considered experience as well as practical and theoretical knowledge about DRE. 976 responses from nine Polish medical universities were included in the study. R e s u l t s: 38.68% of students have never performed DRE with “lack of opportunity during courses” (71.09%) as the most common reason. Among responders who performed this examination only 12.72% had done it more than two times. Usefulness of DRE was mostly assessed as high and very high (55.63%). Students in the self-assessment part indicated low and very low (18.72% and 39.61%) technical abilities and also low (25.34%) interpretation skills. C on c l u s i o n: The knowledge of Polish medical students about DRE is insuffi cient. Medical universities should pay particular attention to this fi eld of examination to improve theoretical as well as practical skills of future doctors.
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Abstract

Background: Anorexia nervosa is a widely prevalent eating disorder that often leads to life-threatening complications. Since it mostly concerns females, many authors have focused on studying the reproductive system in anorexic women. Recently discovered telocytes may give a new insight into the pathophysiology of gynecological complications in these patients. Material and Methods: We adopted an animal model of anorexia nervosa induced by voluntary physical activity. Sixteen female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and activity-based anorexia. When the weight loss of activity-based anorexia (ABA) rats reached 25% animals were euthanized. Size and weight measurements as well as histopathological analysis of the reproductive organs were performed. Additionally, we used immunohistochemical staining for detection of telocytes. Results: Telocytes were identified in uteri of anorectic rats but no diff erences were observed when compared to the control group. Nevertheless, in the ABA group the weight of the uteri and the number of follicles in the ovaries decreased significantly. Conclusions: Our rat model of anorexia nervosa mimics the effects of this eating disorder that occur in the female reproductive system since we reported ovarian dysfunction and uterine involution in the experimental animals. It supports its potential role in the further studies of anorexia pathophysiology and treatment possibilities.
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Abstract

The focus of this study is to investigate the applicability of natural mineral iron disulfide (pyrite) in degradation of aromatic compounds including benzene and several chlorinated benzenes (from mono-chlorinated benzene (CB), di-chlorinated benzenes (di-CBs) to tri-chlorobenzenes (tri-CBs) in aerobic pyrite suspension by using laboratory batch experiments at 25°C and room pressure. At first, chlorobenzene was studied as a model compound for all considered aromatic compounds. CB was degraded in aerobic pyrite suspension, transformed to several organic acids and finally to CO2 and Cl-. Transformations of remaining aromatic compounds were pursued by measuring their degradation rates and CO2 and Cl- released with time. Transformation kinetics was fitted to the pseudo-first-order reactions to calculate degradation rate constant of each compound. Degradation rates of the aromatic compounds were different depending on their chemical structures, specifically the number and position of chlorine substituents on the benzene ring in this study. Compounds with the highest number of chlorine substituent at m-positions have highest degradation rate (1,3,5-triCB > 1,3-diCB > others). Three chlorine substituents closed together (1,2,3-triCB) generated steric hindrance effects. Therefore 1,2,3-triCB wasthe least degraded compound. The degradation rates of all compounds were in the following order: 1,3,5-triCB > 1,3-diCB > 1,2,4-triCB ≅ 1,2-diCB ≅ CB ≅ benzene > 1,4-diCB > 1,2,3-triCB. The final products of the transformations were CO2 and Cl-. Oxygen was the common oxidant for pyrite and aromatic compounds. The presence of aromatic compounds reduced the oxidation rate of pyrite, which reduced the amount of ferrous and sulfate ions release to aqueous solution.
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