The aim of this article is to present a modern method of convective drying intensification caused by the external action of ultrasound. The purpose of this study is to discover the mechanism of ultrasonic interaction between the solid skeleton and the moisture in pores. This knowledge may help to explain the enhancement of drying mechanism affected by ultrasound, particularly with respect to biological products like fruits and vegetables. The experimental kinetics tests were conducted in a hybrid dryer equipped with a new ultrasonic generator. The drying kinetics curves determined on the basis of drying model developed by the author were validated with those by the ones obtained from experimental tests. The intensification of heat and mass transfer processes due to ultrasound induced heating effect and vibration effect are analysed. The obtained results allow to state that ultrasound makes drying processes more effective and enhance the drying efficiency of biological products without significant elevation of their temperature.
The aim of the present theme issue was to study the influence of ultrasound enhancement on the kinetics of osmotic dehydration and the effect of convective drying from the point of view of drying time and quality of dried products. Apple fruit was used as the experimental material. The kinetics of osmotic dehydration with (UAOD) and without (OD) ultrasound enhancement were examined for 40% fructose and sorbitol solutions. The effective dehydration time of osmotic process was determined. Preliminary dehydrated samples with OD and UAOD were next dried convectively with (CVUS) and without (CV) ultrasound assistance. The influence of OD and UAOD on the kinetics of CV and CVUS drying was analysed. The parameters of water activity and colour change were measured for the assessment of product quality after drying process.
In this paper the influence of high power airborne ultrasound on drying biological material (Lobo apple) properties is considered. Apple samples were dried convectively at 75 ◦C and air flow of 2 m/s with and without ultrasound assist at 200W. During experiments, sun-drenched and not sun-drenched part of fruits were considered separately to show, how the maturity of the product influences dry material properties. Dried apple crisps in a size of small bars were subjected to compression tests during which acoustic emission (AE) was used. Analysis of AE and strength test results shows that correlations between received acoustic signals and sensory attributes (crispness, brittleness) of dried apples can be found. It was noted that ultrasound improved fruit brittleness in comparison with pure convective processes, where fruit maturity determines a kind of destruction and behaviour of dried apple crisps.