The paper presents a spatial distribution of changes of air temperature (T) in the Arctic. Estimates of their spatial relations in the study region were based on a correlation analysis. T in the Arctic is most strongly correlated spatially in winter and spring, and least in summer. The radius of extent of statistically significant correlation coefficients of changes of T at the stations Svalbard Lufthavn, Ostrov Kotelny and Resolute A is equal to 2000-2500 km in winter and 1500-2000 km in summer. An attempt was done to delimit the regions of consistent occurrence of the anomalies T with respect to the signs and magnitudes, as well as of the regions with the most coherent T. The Wroclaw dendrite method was used to solve this problem. Relations of the mean areał T of the climatic regions and of the Arctic as a whole, with the northern hemisphere of temperature and selected climatic factors are presented.
Knowledge of the temperature distribution in subsurface layers of the ground is important in the design, modelling and exploitation of ground heat exchangers. In this work a mathematical model of heat transfer in the ground is presented. The model is based on the solution of the equation of transient heat transfer in a semi-infinite medium. In the boundary condition on the surface of the ground radiation fluxes (short- and long-wave), convective heat flux and evaporative heat flux are taken into account. Based on the developed model, calculations were carried out to determine the impact of climatic conditions and the physical properties of the ground on the parameters of the Carslaw-Jeager equation. Example results of calculated yearly courses of the daily average temperature of the surface of the ground and the amount of particular heat fluxes on the ground surface are presented. The compatibility of ground temperature measurements at different depths with the results obtained from the Carslaw–Jaeger equation is evaluated. It was found that the temperature distribution in the ground and its variability in time can be calculated with good accuracy.
The frequency of wind occurrence at sectors each 30° as well as mean air temperature at particular wind direction were accounted for the warmest and the coldest year of the investigation period 1978—1987 at Polish Antarctic „Arctowski" Station. The effect of orography on wind direction and air temperature was determined. A great rate of dependence of air temperature and wind direction upon atmospheric circulation type was found. High air temperature at the winds from 300° and 330° directions is related both to the kind of air mass and foehn phenomena.
Observations from 1978—81, 1983 and 1985 collected at the Polish Polar Arctowski Station (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) were used to calculate frequencies of wind directions in 30° sectors and mean air temperatures observed at each wind direction. Results reveal that all over the year the warmest air masses flow onto the South Shetland Islands from the northwest while the coolest ones from the southeast and east.
This paper describes the weather conditions on the NE coast of Sørkappland (South Spitsbergen) during August 2005, and considers them in the context of the general synoptic situation over the North Atlantic . A comparison of local climates features for the East and West coast of southern Spitsbergen shows that the general atmospheric circulation and direct solar radiation in summer are the decisive factors affecting weather on the East coast. Foehn effects were observed during the study period. In the East, these were triggered by the westerly cyclonic situation and, in the West, by the easterly. The differences in the intensity of foehn effects may be explained by a specific relief of the Sørkappland peninsula.
The occurrence of coreless winters in the South Shetland Islands region is related to increase in the intensity of cyclonic circulation and to the presence of massive and rapid advection of warm air northerly and westerly. Coreless winter developments depend on large-scale oceanic processes – the presence of positive anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Bellingshausen Sea over the range 080°–092°W and the retreat of sea ice extent southwards. When negative anomalies of SST in the same region are observed and the sea ice extent advances northwards, a winter with clearly marked cold core is experienced at the Arctowski Station on the South Shetlands.
Ground temperature variations have been analysed to the depth of 160 cm, with respect to meteorological elements and short-wave radiation balance. The database of the ground temperature covers a thirteen month-long period (May 1992 – June 1993), which included both the seasons of complete freezing of the ground and thaw. Special attention has been given to the development of perennial permafrost and its spatial distribution. In summer, the depth of thawing ground varied in different types of ground — at the Polish Polar Station, this was ca. 130 cm. The ground froze completely in the first week of October. Its thawing started in June. The snow cover restrained heat penetration in the ground, which hindered the ground thawing process. Cross-correlation shows a significant influence of the radiation balance (K*) on the values of near-surface ground temperatures (r2 = 0.62 for summer).
By simulating the actual working conditions of a cable, the temperature variation rule of different measuring points under different load currents was analyzed. On this basis, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) was established, and the difference and influence factors between the simulation temperature and the experimental measured value were discussed, then the influence of thermal conductivity on the operating temperature of the conductor layer was studied. Finally, combined with the steady-state thermal conductivity model and the experimental measured data, the relation between thermal conductivity and load current was obtained.
On the basis of induction heating, radiation heating and liquid nitrogen refrigeration, high-temperature, medium-temperature, normal-temperature and low-temperature heating/refrigeration furnaces were designed, respectively. An apparatus with a wide temperature range and high accuracy applied to test oxidation resistance of materials has been developed based on the thermogravimetric method and the heat transfer principle. The apparatus consists of four heating/cooling systems, a specimen fixture positioning unit, a laser positioning unit, vertical and horizontal moving guide rails, and a high-precision weighing balance. The apparatus, based on the thermogravimetric method, is able to test oxidation resistance of materials. In the test, the temperature range was ��180#24;3000◦C (the highest temperature is determined by material properties). The temperature control accuracy was #6;5◦C. The accuracy of on-line weighing was #6;0:1 mg. The measurement uncertainty was 0.2 mg. Compared with other relevant devices, this apparatus has its own advantages: simple operation, wide heating/cooling temperature range, sufficient specimen heating, high sensitivity and precision, and short heating/cooling time. The experimental results show that the developed apparatus presented in this study not only can be used for isothermal thermogravimetric tests, but also for thermal cycling tests and multi-step oxidation tests. With the effective integration of multiple heating apparatus and refrigeration apparatus, the apparatus breaks through the limitations of the heating/cooling temperature range of the existing devices, accomplishes the high-precision oxidation resistance test of materials in a wide temperature range, and will play a great role in improving the research of materials.
Consumption of energy is one of the important indicators in developing countries, but a lot of companies from the energy sector have to cope with three key challenges, namely how to reduce their impact on the environment, how to ensure the low cost of the energy production and how to improve the system overall performance? For Polish energy market, the number of challenges is greater. The growing demand for electricity and contemporary development of nuclear power technology allow today’s design, implement new solutions for high energy conversion system low unit cost for energy and fuel production. In the present paper, numerical analysis of modular high-temperature nuclear reactor coupled with the steam cycle for electricity production has been presented. The analysed system consists of three independent cycles. The first two are high-temperature nuclear reactor cycles which are equipped with two high-temperature nuclear reactors, heat exchangers, blowers, steam generators. The third cycle is a Rankine cycle which is equipped with up to four steam turbines, that operate in the heat recovery system. The analysis of such a system shows that is possible to achieve significantly greater efficiency than offered by traditional nuclear reactor technology.
The paper presents the method of on-line diagnostics of the bed temperature controller for the fluidized bed boiler. Proposed solution is based on the methods of statistical process control. Detected decrease of the bed temperature control quality is used to activate the controller self-tuning procedure. The algorithm that provides optimal tuning of the bed temperature controller is also proposed. The results of experimental verification of the presented method is attached. Experimental studies were carried out using the 2 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler.
Candona rectangulata is an ostracod species common in cold (<15 ° C ) shallow freshwater Arctic water bodies. This species is useful in palaeolimnological studies because only few known autecological data can be applied in reconstructions of palaeoclimate. Particular attention was paid to the temperature, which is the basic factor determining the geo− graphic range of a species. In this study a wide tolerance of C. rectangulata to the temperature was demonstrated for the first time. Its high tolerance to the temperature changes seems to be based on induction of set of proteins belonging to the family of heat shock proteins. Using PAGE−SDS electrophoresis variation in the protein profile of non−model organism undergoing stress in the field (South Spitsbergen, near Stanisław Siedlecki Polish Polar Station) and in laboratory cultures was presented. These results could explain the eurythermic range of C. rectangulata and its good adaptation to the environmental conditions which normally do not exist in Arctic freshwater ponds.
Many Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates are adapted to specific environ− mental conditions (e.g. low stable temperatures, high salinity and oxygen content). Changes caused by global climatic shifts can be expected to have significant impact on their physiol− ogy and distribution. Odontaster validus, an ubiquitous, omnivorous sea star is one of the “keystone species” in the Antarctic benthic communities. Laboratory experiments were car− ried out to study the effect of temperature rise (from 0 to 5#2;C) on some vital biological func− tions that sea stars must perform in order to survive in their environment. Parameters such as behavioural reaction of sea stars to food and food odour, locomotory performance and abil− ity to right were measured. Temperature increase significantly impaired the ability of O. validus to perform these functions (e.g. lowering the number of sea stars able to right, in− creasing time−to−right, reducing locomotory activity, weakening chemosensory reaction to food and food odour). At temperatures of 4 and 5#2;C a loss of motor coordination was ob− served, although at all tested temperatures up to 5#2;C there were single individuals perform− ing successfully.
The theoretical aspects of a new type of piezo-resistive pressure sensors for environments with rapidly changing temperatures are presented. The idea is that the sensor has two identical diaphragms which have different coefficients of linear thermal expansion. Therefore, when measuring pressure in environments with variable temperature, the diaphragms will have different deflection. This difference can be used to make appropriate correction of the sensor output signal and, thus, to increase accuracy of measurement. Since physical principles of sensors operation enable fast correction of the output signal, the sensor can be used in environments with rapidly changing temperature, which is its essential advantage. The paper presents practical implementation of the proposed theoretical aspects and the results of testing the developed sensor.
Pulse electrochemical machining (PECM) provides an economical and e.ective method for machining high strength, heat-resistantmaterials into complex shapes such as turbine blades, die, molds and micro cavities. Pulse Electrochemical Machining involves the application of a voltage pulse at high current density in the anodic dissolution process. Small interelectrode gap, low electrolyte .ow rate, gap state recovery during the pulse o.-times lead to improved machining accuracy and surface .nish when compared with ECM using continuous current. This paper presents a mathematical model for PECM and employs this model in a computer simulation of the PECM process for determination of the thermal limitation and energy consumption in PECM. The experimental results and discussion of the characteristics PECM are presented.
The article discusses changes in Polish regulations concerning assessment of the climate hazard in underground mines. Currently, the main empirical index representing the heat strain, used in qualification of the workplace to one of the climate hazard levels in Poland is the equivalent climate temperature. This simple heat index allows easy and quick assessment of the climate hazard. To a major extent, simple heat indices have simplifications and are developed for a specific working environments. Currently, the best methods used in evaluation of microclimate conditions in the workplace are those based on the theory of human thermal balance, where the physiological parameters characterising heat strain are body water loss and internal core temperature of the human body. The article describes the results of research on usage of equivalent climate temperature to heat strain evaluation in underground mining excavations. For this purpose, the numerical model of heat exchange between man and his environment was used, taken from PN-EN ISO 7933:2005. The research discussed in this paper has been carried out considering working conditions and clothing insulation in use in underground mines. The analyses performed in the study allowed formulation of conclusions concerning application of the equivalent climate temperature as a criterion of assessment of climate hazards in underground mines.
In general, Antarctic marine bacteria are small, with biovolumes ranging from 0.139 to 0.204 μm-3 cell-1, but their total biomass in seawater is considerable due to relatively high numbers that approximate to 1020 cells km-3. Bacterial biomass becomes more concentrated closer to land. Our multi-year Antarctic studies demonstrated an average total bacterial biomass of 504 tons in Admirality Bay (24 km3) or 21 tons per 1 km3, versus 6.4 tons per 1 km3 in the open ocean. Strikingly, bacterial biomass reached 330 tons per 1 km3 of seawater at the sea-ice edge, as sampled in Goulden Cove in Admiralty Bay. Bacterial biomass in Admirality Bay, which we believe can be enriched by halotolerant and thermotolerant fresh water bacteria from glacial streams, is equal to or even exceeds that of the standing stock of krill (100-630 tons per bay) or other major living components, including phytoplankton (657 tons), flagellates (591 tons), and ciliates (412 tons). However, the bacterial biomass is exceeded by several orders of magnitude by non-living organic matter, which constitutes the basic bacterial carbon source. Factors regulating high bacterial abundance in the vicinity of land are discussed.
Measurements were made of sediment characteristics, benthic microbial activity and optimum temperature for sulfate reduction at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica . There was little evidence to support any seasonal variation in oxygen penetration of surface sediments. Oxygen penetrated to only 1.5 to 3 mm throughout the year, despite bioturbation from a dense amphipod population. The distribution of acid volatile sulfides increased with depth below 1 cm and above this, surface sediments were lighter in colour and contained fewer sulfides. The rates of sulfate reduction increased during winter under sea-ice cover, and remained high after ice break up. Seasonal water temperature was relatively constant between –1.8 and 0.5°C. Optimum temperature for anaerobic sediment respiration was investigated using different substrates and was found to be in the range 17–27°C, suggesting that sulfate reducing bacteria are psychrotolerant as they were inhibited by low temperatures.
The paper consists the problem of developing a scientific toolkit allowing to predict the thermal state of the ingot during its formation in all elements of the casting and rolling complex, between the crystallizer of the continuous casting machine and exit from the furnace. As the toolkit for the decision making task the predictive mathematical model of the ingot temperature field is proposed. Displacement between the various elements of the CRC is accounted for by changing the boundary conditions. Mass-average enthalpy is proposed as a characteristic of ingot cross-section temperature state. The next methods of solving a number of important problems with the use of medium mass enthalpy are developed: determination of the necessary heat capacity of ingots after the continuous casting machine for direct rolling without heating; determination of the rational time of alignment of the temperature field of ingots having sufficient heat capacity for rolling after casting; determination of the total amount of heat (heat capacity) required to supply the metal for heating ingots that have insufficient amount of internal heat.
The study evaluated the curing properties of natural silica sand moulded with 1% by weight Furotec 132 resin binder catalysed by Furocure CH Fast acid and Furocure CH Slow acid. Physical properties of this sand included an AFS number of 47.35, 4.40 % clay, 0 % magnetic components, 0.13 % moisture, and 64.5 % of the size distribution spread over three consecutive sieves (150 – 600 μm). The sand was washed repeatedly to remove all the clay and oven dried. 2 kg washed sand samples were mulled with pre-determined weights of either catalyst to give 30 %, 50 % and 70 % by weight of 20 g Furotec 132 resin which was added last. Furotec 132 resin + Furocure CH Slow acid catalyst system gives longer bench lives and strip times but the maximum compressive strength in excess of 5000 N/cm2 is attained after more than 8.5 hours curing time irrespective of the weight % of catalyst added relative to the resin. On that basis, exceeding 30 weight % Furocure CH Slow acid catalyst when sand moulding with Furotec 132 resin has neither technical nor economic justification. In comparison, the Furotec 132 resin + Furocure CH Fast acid catalyst system was only capable of producing mould specimens with maximum compressive strength above 5000 N/cm2 at 30 weight % catalyst addition rate. At 50 and 70 weight % catalyst addition rates, the mulled sand rapidly turned dark green then bluish with a significant spike in temperature to about 40 oC, far exceeding the optimum curing temperature of Furotec 132. This high temperature accelerates the curing rate but with a very low degree of resin curing which explains the low compressive strength. In fact the sand grains fail to bond and have a dry, crumbly texture implying dehydration. Thus, not more than 30 weight % Furocure CH Fast acid catalyst should be used in sand moulding.
The article presents the results of research concerning to AlCu4MgSi alloy ingots produced using horizontal continuous casting process. The presented research was focused on the precise determination of phase composition of the precipitates formed during the solidification of ingots and the analysis of their thermal stability. In order to assess the morphology of precipitates in the AlCu4MgSi alloy, data obtained by using a computer simulation of thermodynamic phenomena were compiled with results obtained using advanced research techniques, i.e. High-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), SEM-EDS, Thermal and derivative analysis (TDA) and Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD OES). SEM observations and analysis of chemical composition in micro-areas showed that the precipitates are mainly intermetallic θ-Al2Cu and β-Mg2Si phases, and also presence of Al19Fe4MnSi2 intermetallic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Based on the prepared Thermo-Calc simulation data, high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted.
To investigate the effect of different proximate index on minimum ignition temperature(MIT) of coal dust cloud, 30 types of coal specimens with different characteristics were chosen. A two-furnace automatic coal proximate analyzer was employed to determine the indexes for moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon and MIT of different types of coal specimens. As the calculated results showed that these indexes exhibited high correlation, a principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted to extract principal components for multiple factors affecting MIT of coal dust, and then, the effect of the indexes for each type of coal on MIT of coal dust was analyzed. Based on experimental data, support vector machine (SVM) regression model was constructed to predicate the MIT of coal dust, having a predicating error below 10%. This method can be applied in the predication of the MIT for coal dust, which is beneficial to the assessment of the risk induced by coal dust explosion (CDE).
AISI 316L/TiB2/2p composites were manufactured by HP-HT using different pressures (5 and 7 GPa) and temperatures (900-1300°C), with constant reinforcing particle content 2 vol%. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated on the basis of hardness (HV0.3) and compression tests (20°C, 10−5 s−1). The results showed that the role of sintering pressure increased with increasing process temperature. At temperatures of 900°C and pressures of 5 and 7 GPa the difference in measured values of compressive strength was 1-2%, while at 1300°C they reached 20%. At constant pressure of 5 GPa, a change in hardness and compressive strength of 40% were obtained with a temperature change of 900 to 1300°C. Changes in mechanical properties in the composite occurred without substantial changes in density, microstructure, reinforcement phase distribution, and phase composition in the matrix.
In order to improve the efficiency of power generation system and reduce CO2 emissions power plants work at high temperature and pressure. Under such conditions modified steel 9Cr, which fulfils the requirements concerning creep resistance, is used. However, Cr2O3 formed on the steel does not protect the construction material in the atmosphere which contains CO2 and SO2. The aim of the experiment was to study the behaviour of P91 steel in CO2 atmosphere with the addition of 1% and 5 vol.% of SO2 at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900°C). It was concluded that the corrosion rate of P91 steel is increasing with a rise in temperature. Scales formed in CO2 atmosphere at 900°C contain a mixture of iron oxides in the outer layer and chromium-iron spinel in the inner layer. The FeS and Ni were found in the inner zone of scales formed in SO2 atmosphere.
Exergy analysis is a powerful thermodynamic tool and it helps in computing the actual output of a system. It helps the researchers to optimize the roughened solar air heater design to compensate the present and also the future needs. In this study, investigation on exergetic performance evaluation of a solar air heater with W-shaped roughened absorber surface analytically by employing mathematical model and the results obtained are compared with smooth plate solar air heater under same operating conditions. The exergetic efficiency curves has been plotted as a function of different values of Reynolds number and temperature rise parameter for different roughness parameters. The maximum augmentation in the exergetic efficiency of the solar air heater with W-shaped roughened surface as compared to solar air heater with smooth surface has been obtained as 51% corresponding to the relative roughness height of 0.03375 and the rib angle of attack about 60◦. Based on the exergetic efficiency the suitable design parameters of solar air heater with W-shaped roughened are determined.