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Number of results: 7
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis postulating that the supplementation of turkey diets with Cu nanoparticles can lower dietary inclusion levels of Cu without compromising the growth rate and antioxidant status of turkeys. The experiment was carried out on 648 one-day-old Hybrid Converter turkeys divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group, in a two-factorial design with 3 dietary inclusion levels of Cu (20, 10 and 2 mg/kg) and 2 dietary sources of Cu - copper sulfate (Cu-SUL) and Cu nanoparticles (Cu-NP). At 42 days of age, blood samples were collected from 2 birds per replicate (12 birds per group), after slaughter livers were collected for analyses. Blood and liver samples were assayed for: Cu, Zn, Ca, P, Mg, GLU, TP, ALB, UREA, TAG, TC, UA, ALT, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, SOD, GPx, CAT, VIT C, FRAP, GSH+GSSG, LOOH, MDA. The results of this experiment demonstrate that a decrease in the dietary inclusion levels of Cu from 10 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg does not compromise the growth performance of turkeys, but weakens antioxidant defense mechanisms. A Cu dose of 20 mg/kg induces oxidation reactions and has a much more inhibitory effect on the antioxidant defense system than dietary Cu content of 2 mg/kg. In turkeys, dietary supplementation with Cu-NP has a more beneficial effect on carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant status compared with Cu-SUL. The results of analyses examining the antioxidant and metabolic status of young turkeys indicate that 10 mg/kg is the optimal dietary inclusion level of Cu.
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Abstract

The use of lactoferrin (LF) and/or lactobacillus sp. (LB) to improve animal health and production has increased recently. However, information regarding the immune-modulatory role of LB supplementations either alone or in combination with LF in sheep remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the immune modulating properties and the antioxidant activity of supplementing commercially available LF and/or LB in healthy lambs. For this reason, twenty-four apparently healthy Ossimi lambs were used. After three weeks of acclimatization, the lambs were randomly allocated to four equal-sized groups and assigned to receive one of the following supplements: LB at a dose of ~ 1 g active ingredient/head (group 1), LF at a dose rate of 0.5 gm /head (group 2), a combination of both treatments using the same dosing regimens (group 3), and (group 4) received only 10 mL of isotonic saline and was considered as a control group. All supplements were given orally twice daily for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected from each lamb before starting the experiment (T0) and two weeks (T15), and four weeks (T30) after giving supplements for hematological examinations, serum biochemical analyses, and RT-PCR assays. Our findings demonstrated that lambs receiving LB showed statistically significant (P<0.05) higher values of total leucocytes, lymphocytes and lysozyme activity than those receiving LF. In contrast, lambs that received LF had significantly (P< 0.05) higher values of serum catalase, nitric oxide and GSH with a significantly lower MDA level compared with those supplemented with LB. A combination of LF and LB supplementation elicited maximal up-regulation of Tollip, TLR4, IL-5, and IL-6 gene expression compared with other groups. The results suggest that bovine LF and or LB could be used as useful nutritional supplements to support the immune system in healthy lambs.
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Abstract

The aim of this research was to study the biodiversity of cyanobacteria and microalgae in hydro-terrestrial habitats from the area of Hornsund fjord (Svalbard archipelago). This research is particularly important, because hitherto no complex research (including all taxonomic groups) has previously been conducted on the cyanobacterial and microalgal flora in Arctic water ecosystems. The research was conducted during the summer seasons of 2011 and 2013. Shannon’s diversity index was used to describe species diversity and evenness. Data on cyanobacteria and microalgae were analyzed using the MVSP and PCA. Additionally, a basic analysis of the physicochemical properties of water in the studied ecosystems was performed. A total of 506 taxa were noted in the studied hydro-terrestrial habitats. The most numerous group was cyanobacteria, constituting 35% of all recorded taxa. Ochrophyta and Chlorphyta were almost equally numerous (percentage again as for cyanobacteria). Nineteen types of assemblages were noted in all studied hydro-terrestrial habitats. The diversity of cyanobacteria and microalgae and the assemblages formed by them were used to determine the characteristics of the studied ecosystems. Each type of water ecosystem was represented by specific phycoflora and assemblages. Ecological parameters along with biological data (the diversity of cyanobacteria and microalgae) allowed us to sort the studied hydro-terrestrial habitats by similarity. Our analyses clearly distinguished water ecosystem groups differing in species composition determining their trophic status. The research shows the usefulness of cyanobacteria and microalgae diversity defined by the Shannon-Weaver index for characterizing bodies of water and determining the trophic status of these habitats.
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine identity statuses in various life domains and the relationship between identity and well-being. We adopted the three-dimensional model of identity (Crocetti et al., 2008), including: in-depth exploration, commitment, and reconsideration of commitment. Moreover, in accordance with domain-specific approach (Goossens, 2001), we sought to empirically derive identity statuses in various life domains. The participants included 835 emerging adults (Mage = 21.81, SD = 2.33). We examined eight domains previously identified in qualitative research: personality characteristics, past experiences, family, friends and acquaintances, worldview, hobbies and interests, aims and plans for the future, and occupation. To measure three identity processes, we used a modified version of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (Crocetti et al., 2008) and to measure well-being we used the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (Keyes, 2013). Results indicate that, although the statuses identified in previous research were, to a large extent, replicated (except moratorium), people were classified in different statuses in different domains; thus, we conclude that talking about statuses should be limited to a given domain. Well-being was the highest in achievement statuses and the lowest in diffusion, but only in two examined domains: personality characteristics and past experience.
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Abstract

Artykuł składa się z części krytycznej oraz pozytywnej. Część krytyczna stanowi polemikę z dwoma najbardziej rozpowszechnionymi uzasadnieniami na rzecz utożsamienia całkowitej niewydolności mózgu (tzw. śmierci mózgowej) ze śmiercią człowieka. Zgodnie z jednym z nich, śmierć ma miejsce wtedy, gdy dochodzi do somatycznej dezintegracji organizmu. Natomiast drugie uzasadnienie, zaproponowane w 2008 r. przez President’s Council on Bioethics, utożsamia śmierć z utratą zdolności do samozachowania. W części zawierającej pozytywną argumentację autor przedstawia alternatywną koncepcję, według której śmierć, w znaczeniu, jakie jest istotne z perspektywy praktyki medycznej, jest tożsama z nieodwracalną utratą cech stanowiących o tym, że dana istota posiada status moralny. Nowa koncepcja pozwala utożsamić stan całkowitej niewydolności mózgu ze śmiercią człowieka oraz daje podstawę do opracowania bardziej precyzyjnych medycznych kryteriów śmierci.
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