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Number of results: 8
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Abstract

The presented article describes the method for determining one of the trace elements occurring in coalbismuth. The subjects of the analysis were coal type 34, 35 and their fly ashes derived from Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa. The main reason for the research was the extensive use of bismuth in many industry sectors. Additionally, bismuth is on the list of deficit elements, therefore the possibility of obtaining an alternative for its recycling source of it is needed, is required. The research was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization in a graphite cuvette. The samples were incinerated at 800°C and microwave mineralization in a high-pressure closed system was performed until the spectrometric analysis was achieved. In order to achieve mineralization, a mixture of HF and HNO3 acids was used to turn the samples into acidic solutions. The preparation of the samples was based on available literature data and own observations. In the experiment, the effects of the additive modifier was modified by changing the temperature in further steps: drying, incineration, cooling, atomization and burning were described. In addition, the palladium modifier was used in order to limit secondary reactions and enable the evaporation of matrix components. The measurement conditions which are presented in this article allow for a linear calibration curve to be established. However, this is not clear and the definitive method for determining the bismuth in coal is carried out through the use of ET-AAS.
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Abstract

Faecal Enterococcus hirae from domestic ducks were studied for their bioactivity to select bioactive strain for more detailed study with its probable use in poultry and also to bring novelty in basic research. After defecation, faeces (n=23, faecal mixture of 40 ducks) were sampled from domestic ducks in eastern Slovakia; birds were aged from eight to 14 weeks. E. hirae strains were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry with a highly probable species identification score (2.300-3.000) or a secure genus identification/ /probable species identification score (2.000-2.299), confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and phenotypization in accordance with the properties for the type strain E. hirae ATCC 9790. Strains were hemolysis negative (γ-hemolysis), and did not have active enzyme stimulating disorders. Enterocin genes were detected in three strains out of seven. Three out of four Enterocin genes were detected in Kč1/b (Ent A, P, L50A); the most frequently detected was the Ent P gene. The strains inhibited indicator strains E. faecalis, listeriae, but also Escherichia coli and Buttiauxiella strains. Lactic-acid producing E. hirae were mostly susceptible to antibiotics. Based on parameter evaluation, E. hirae Kč1/b, Kč6 can be additionally studied to select the type of bioactive substance.
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Abstract

The electrical impedance diagnostic methods and instrumentation developed at the Gdansk and Warsaw Universities of Technology are described. On the basis of knowledge of their features, several original approaches to the broad field of electrical impedance applications are discussed. Analysis of electrical field distribution after external excitation, including electrode impedance, is of primary importance for measurement accuracy and determining the properties of the structures tested. Firstly, the problem of electrical tissue properties is discussed. Particular cells are specified for in vitro and in vivo measurements and for impedance spectrometry. Of especial importance are the findings concerning the electrical properties of breast cancer, muscle anisotropy and the properties of heart tissue and flowing blood. The applications are both important and wide-ranging but, for the present, special attention has been focused on the evaluation of cardiosurgical interventions. Secondly, methods of instrument construction are presented which use an electrical change in conductance, such as impedance pletysmography and cardiography, for the examination of total systemic blood flow. A new method for the study of right pulmonary artery blood flow is also introduced. The basic applications cover examination of the mechanical activity of the heart and evaluation of many haemodynamic parameters related to this. Understanding the features that occur during blood flow is of major importance for the proper interpretation of measurement data. Thirdly, the development of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is traced for the purposes of determining the internal structure of organs within the broad field of 2-D and 3-D analysis and including modelling of the organs being tested, the development of reconstruction algorithms and the construction of hardware.
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Abstract

The article presents the results of investigations performed on segregation of elements in the billets. The research were performed under standard industrial conditions, during high carbon steel production cycle. Probes (templates with the thickness of 20 mm) were taken from billets with square cross-section of 160 mm. Segregation of elements was determined based on the quantitative analysis of results performed by using spark spectrometry pursuant to PN-H-04045. Changes in concentrations of elements were analysed along two cross-sections. Element contents were performed at points distanced from each other by approx. 10 mm. The segregation of carbon, sulphur and phosphorus was determined for different billets.
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Abstract

Product quality tests require accurate and precise analytical techniques. Fertilizers belong to a group of products whose chemical composition is of great importance due to health, environmental and economic reasons. The following paper presents the results of the research into the content of selected substances in several mineral fertilizers manufactured in Poland. Ion chromatography (IC) was employed to determine selected inorganic anions and cations, whereas energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) was used to determine the content of selected elements.
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Abstract

In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray). The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg). In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS) were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.
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Abstract

Many species of Trichoderma produce secondary metabolites such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that reduce plant diseases and promote their growth. In this work we evaluated the antagonistic effects of VOCs released by eight strains of two Trichoderma species against Pyrenophora teres Drechsler, the causal agent of barley net blotch. Antagonism was estimated based on the percentage of mycelial growth inhibition according to the confronted cultures method. VOCs extraction and identification were performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, through different methodologies for VOCs emitted by antagonists and pathogens alone or when confronted. VOCs produced by all Trichoderma strains inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen in a range of 3 to 32%, showing weak and unpigmented mycelia with vacuolization. In addition, P. teres stimulated the release of VOCs by both Trichoderma species. The major groups of VOCs detected were sesquiterpenes, followed by diterpenes, terpenoids and eight-carbon compounds. This is the first report about characterization of volatiles emitted by Trichoderma in the presence of P. teres.
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Abstract

SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to study the effect of NaCl on protein expression in two cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.): Edkawi (salt-tolerant) and Castle rock (salt-sensitive). Five-day-old seedlings were grown on MS agar media supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mM NaCl. Two days after treatment the seedlings were examined to determine the effect of salt on their growth and to relate that to protein banding variations. Gel analysis showed differences in at least 4 protein bands with molecular weights at 20, 25, 45 and 65 kDa. These proteins were induced in the 50 mM NaCl treatment in the salt-sensitive cultivar, then decreasing to undetectability at higher concentrations. In the salt-tolerant cultivar, most of the proteins exhibited a more or less steady expression pattern and maintained expression through the 200 mM NaCl treatment. All proteins gave weak or no expression signals at 300 mM NaCl, the treatment that proved lethal. Differentially expressed bands were identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The putative function of each identified protein in relation to salt stress is discussed.
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