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Abstract

The policy set by the European Commission for Programming Period 2014–2020 introduced new instruments supporting regional development but also posed new requirements that must be met by European regions. One of them is smart specialization. To implement Strategy for Europe 2020, published by the European Commission in 2010, EU Member States and their regions develop strategies for smart specialization that show directions for providing support to the strengthening of research, development and innovation. Smart specialization is an important instrument for strengthening of competitiveness as well as for defining and building the knowledge-based economy. This article presents analysis of processes responsible for identifying smart specialization in Pomeranian and West Pomeranian Regions (in Polish: Voivodeships). This analysis is a continuation and extension of the research on the process of emergence of smart specialization in Pomeranian Region by the inclusion of the West Pomeranian Region into this study. Both Regions are situated on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea and are seats of main Polish harbours and shipyards. Their regional capitals Gdańsk and Szczecin are the cores of emerging metropolitan areas. The aims of the article are: (1) assessment of methods of smart specialization emergence and selection; (2) analysis of differences and similarities of areas of smart specialization of two coastal regions. In Pomeranian region the process of emergence of smart specialization was a bottom-up one where the Regional Government organized the competition and invited actors to build partnerships. In other regions of Poland it was more of a top-down process, but with participation of stakeholders. The West Pomeranian Region is an example of this approach. Methods of the research applied for this study include: analysis of literature, documents from Voivodeship Marshal Offices, individual interviews, participation in the process of emerging of smart specialization in Pomeranian Voivodeship and comparative analysis of the methods of their emergence in both regions.
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Abstract

Wales is one from five selected European regions, which (looking at statistical analysis), develop in an extraordinary way in comparison to others. The purpose of the article is to identify factors which had an impact on the change of Wales’s development path as well as to indicate problems with which the region has still struggle. The article is based on a desk research, statistical data analysis as well as structured in-depth interviews conducted with representatives of regional authorities, scientifi c units and business-related institutions. Based on this, conclusions and recommendations for the institutions involved in implementation of regional policy in Polish voivodeships have been formulated.
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Abstract

The aim of the article is to present the role of tourism as a smart specialization, and in particular health tourism in strengthening regional development processes on the example of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. The first part of the article presents the ideas of smart specialization as a concept of stimulating innovative development with a particular focus on tourism in regional innovation strategies. The second part of the article focuses on the uniqueness of natural resources in the context of the spa tourism development potential in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. The third part presents quantitative data characterizing tourism in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. While the fourth part presents the effects of cooperation between entrepreneurs and expert and university employees who, while creating innovations, solve the problems of entrepreneurs, thus contributing to the development of tourism and the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. Finally, final conclusions and summary are presented.
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