A nanoscale beam model containing defect under the piezoelectricity considering the surface effects and flexoelectricity is established on the framework of Euler-Bernoulli theory. The governing equations of motion and related boundary conditions are derived by using Hamilton’s principle. The imperfect nanobeam is modeled by dividing the beam into two separate parts that are connected by a rotational and a longitude spring at the defect location. Analytical results on the free vibration response of the imperfect piezoelectric nanobeam exhibit that the flexoelectricity and the surface effects are sensitive to the boundary conditions, defect position, and geometry of the nanobeam. Numerical results are provided to predict the mechanical behavior of a weakened piezoelectric nanobeam considering the flexoelectric and surface effects. It is also revealed that the voltage, defect severity, and piezoelectric material have a critical role on the resonance frequency. The work is envisaged to underline the influence of surface effects and flexoelectricity on the free vibration of a cracked piezoelectric nanobeam for diverse boundary conditions. It should be mentioned, despite our R. Sourkiprevious works, an important class of piezoelectric materials used nowadays and called piezoelectric ceramics is considered in the current study.
This paper presents a novel complementary CPWfed slotted microstrip patch antenna for operation at 2.4 GHz, 5.2 GHz and 6.3 GHz frequencies. The primary structure consists of the complementary split ring resonator slots on a patch and the design is fabricated on FR-4 epoxy substrate with substrate thickness of 1.6 mm. The described structure lacks the presence of a ground plane and makes use of a number of circular complementary SRRs along with rectangular slots on the radiating patch. The structure provides a wide bandwidth of around 390 MHz, 470 MHz and 600 MHz at the three bands with return losses of -11.5 dB, -24.3996dB and -24.4226 dB, respectively. The inclusion of the rectangular slots in the CSRR based slot antenna with stairecase structure improved the performance with respect to return loss.
Acoustic properties of ultrasound (US) contrast agent microbubbles (MB) highly influence sonoporation efficiency and intracellular drug and gene delivery. In this study we propose an acoustic method to monitor passive and excited MBs in a real time. MB monitoring system consisted of two separate transducers. The first transducer delivered over an interval of 1 s US pulses (1 MHz, 1% duty cycle, 100 Hz repetition frequency) with stepwise increased peak negative pressure (PNP), while the second one continuously monitored acoustic response of SonoVue MBs. Pulse echo signals were processed according to the substitution method to calculate attenuation coefficient spectra and loss of amplitude. During US exposure at 50–100 kPa PNP we observed a temporal increase in loss of amplitude which coincided with the US delivery. Transient increase in loss of amplitude vanished at higher PNP values. At higher PNP values loss of amplitude decreased during the US exposure indicating MB sonodestruction. Analysis of transient attenuation spectra revealed that attenuation coefficient was maximal at 1.5 MHz frequency which is consistent with resonance frequency of SonoVue MB. The method allows evaluation of the of resonance frequency of MB, onset and kinetics of MB sonodestruction.
The sompoton is one of famous traditional musical instruments in Sabah. This instrument consists of several parts with the vibrator being the most important one. In this paper, the vibrator is modeled as a clamped bar with a uniformly distributed mass. By means of this model, the fundamental frequency is analyzed with the use of an equivalent single degree of freedom system (SDOF) and exact analysis. The vibrator is made of aluminum in different sizes and is excited using a constant air jet to obtain its fundamental resonance frequency. The fundamental frequency obtained from the experimental measurement is compared with the theoretical values calculated based on the equivalent SDOF and exact analysis theories. It is found that the exact analysis gives a closer value to the experimental results as compared to the SDOF system. Although both the experimental and theoretical results exhibit the same trend, they are different in magnitude. To overcome the differences in both theories, a correction factor is added to account for the production errors.