Growing emission requirements are forcing the foundry industry to seek new, more environmentally friendly solutions. One of the solutions may be the technologies of preparing moulding and core sands using organic biodegradable materials as binders. However, not only environmental requirements grow but also those related to the technological properties of moulding sand. Advancing automation and mechanization of the foundry industry brings new challenges related to the moulding sands. Low elasticity may cause defects during assembly of cores or moulds by the manipulators. The paper presents the study of flexibility in the room temperature according to new method and resistance to thermal deformation of selfhardening moulding sands with furfuryl resin, containing biodegradable material PCL. The task of the new additive is to reduce the moulding sands harmfulness to the environment and increase its flexibility in the room temperature. The impact of the additive and the effect of the amount of binder on the properties of mentioned moulding sands were analysed. Studies have shown that the use of 5% of PCL does not change the nature of the thermal deformation curve, improves the bending strength of tested moulding mixtures and increases their flexibility at room temperature.
Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?” This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition). Ratio of active bentonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.
In highly developed countries, a significant progress in the use of alternative and clean energy sources has recently been observed. The European Union has implemented a programme to build wind turbines. It is estimated that in the coming years, thanks to the support in tax and credit, the global energy will develop very intensively. Many components of the wind turbines are castings. The basic material used for these castings is ductile iron, which in this particular case must meet high requirements imposed by the operating conditions of wind turbines. Anticipating an increase in customer demand for this type of castings, Krakodlew SA has decided to modernize its foundry using the ability to obtain external financing. The ductile iron manufacturing technology is now being developed and adapted to the specific conditions of the foundry plant, including the melting process yielding cast material with the required chemical composition, the technology of moulding, and the conditions for possible secondary metallurgy, spheroidizing treatment and graphitizing inoculation. The fulfilment of the imposed conditions for the casting production demands the use of advanced casting technologies introduced to the manufacturing process. The development of technology to launch the production of ductile iron castings for the wind power industry was supported by The National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR). This article presents part of research on the binding kinetics of furan resin sands and choice of their composition for moulds and cores to make heavy castings used as components of equipment for the wind power industry.
A special Slag-Prop Cu database has been developed to archive data from laboratory and industrial tests related to post-reduction slags. In order to enrich the data areas, it was decided to design a system for measuring the temperature of the liquid slag and its viscosity. Objectives of research work are to gather information on the properties of post-slags such as the temperature of liquid slag and its viscosity. The discussed issues are especially important in the foundry practice. Designed research stand and using of database applications can greatly facilitate the work of metallurgists, foundrymen, technologists and scientists. The viscosity measurement was developed and presented earlier. The author's analytical methodology was supplemented by a thyristor measuring system (described in the article). The system temperature measurement can be performed simultaneously in 3 ways to reduce the measurement error. Measurement of the voltage mV - using the Seebeck effect can be measured throughout the entire range of thermocouple resistance, up to 1300 °C. Direct temperature measurement ⁰C - measurement only below 1000 ⁰C. Additional measurement - the measurement can also be read from the pyrometer set above the bath. The temperature and the reading frequency depend on the device itself. The principle of measurement is that in a molten metal / slag crucible, we put a N-type thermocouple. The thermocouples are hung by means of a tripod above the crucible and placed in a crucible. The thermocouple is connected to a compensating line dedicated to this type of thermocouple. The cable is in turn connected to a special multimeter that has the ability to connect to a computer and upload results. Temperature measurement can be performed simultaneously in 3 ways to reduce the measurement error. The Sn-Pb alloy has been subjected to testing for proper operation of the device. In this foot should be observed the supercooling of the liquid, which initiates the crystallization process and in which latent heat begins to exude raising the temperature until the coagulation temperature is reached.
The results of investigations of three commercial binders applied in the Alphaset technology marked as: Sample E , Sample T and Sample S are presented in the hereby paper. These samples were subjected to the pyrolysis process at a temperature of 900°C (inert atmosphere, He 99.9999). The gas chromatograph coupled with the mass spectrometer and pyrolizer (Py-GC/MS) were used in the study. The identification of gases emitted during the thermal decomposition was performed on the basis of the mass spectral library. The obtained results indicate a certain diversification of emitted gases. Among the pyrolysis products the following harmful substances were identified: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol and also substances from the BTEX (benzene, toluene and ethylobezneze and xylenes) PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and VOC groups (Volatile Organic Compounds). Therefore, from the environment protection point of view performing systematic investigations concerning the harmfulness of binders applied in the moulding and core sands technology, is essential.
The influence and the potential risk due to hidden faults of a relay protection system on power supply in distribution systems are paid more and more attention to. A probability analysis method is used to analyse fault characteristics and action mechanism of dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation of the relay protection systems, and failure probability model of relay protection system is constructed and simplified. The effects of dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation of the relay protection systems on the reduced power supply load power are analysed, and a probabilistic model for reduced power supply load power is constructed by three parts corresponding to dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation. A probability calculation method of power supply risk occurrence due to hidden faults of relay protecttion system is proposed considering the fault probability of the relay protection systems, the frequency of the hidden faults occurring in operation period, the reduced power supply load power or load power outage, and the connection mode of the in-lines, out-lines and transformers in a substation. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed method for estimation of risk value probability of the relay protection systems is verified by two studied examples.
Taking into account that terrorism has grown in recent years, the EU institutions decided to update the legal framework which provides for fighting this phenomenon. Consequently, the Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA was replaced by the EU Directive 2017/541 of the European Parliament and of the Council on combating terrorism, which should be implemented by the Member States by 8 September 2018. This new act contains a long list of terrorist offences, offences related to a terrorist group, and offences related to terrorist activities. It also stipulates penal sanctions for terrorist offences and provides measures of protection, support and assistance for terrorism victims. This article is a commentary on these groups of provisions and compares them to the previously binding ones. Thus, it indicates the legal changes introduced by the Directive which have to be taken into account by the Member States while implementing it. The comparison of these new provisions with the previously binding ones is also helpful in answering the question posed in the title: Can the Directive 2017/541 be treated as a new chapter in combating terrorism by the European Union?
A forecast of the negative impact exerted on the environment by selected trace elements in “Bełchatów” Power Plant has been prepared on the basis of the results of investigations into these elements’ distribution carried out as part of earlier research on coal from “Bełchatów” Field and the data on updated analyses of the content of these elements in 55 brown coal samples from test boreholes. Work in “Bełchatów” Power Plant, which is supplied with coal from “Szczerców” Field, will be accompanied by trace elements transfer. On the basis of the conducted investigations it has been found that the biosphere is most threatened by mercury emissions. As shown by the presented results of analyses and calculations, the emissions of mercury in “Bełchatów” Power Plant are low. Mercury is accumulated chiefl y in gypsum produced in the FGD plant. The content of mercury in slag and ash is low.
The article presents a shock safety model of an indirect contact with a low-voltage electric device. This model was used for computations and analyses concerning the following: the probabilities of appearance of the particular shock protection unreliability states, electric shock states (ventricular fibrillation), contributions of the unreliability of different shock protection elements to the probability of occurrence of these states, as well as the risk of electric shock (and the shock safety), and contributions of the intensity of occurrence of damages to different shock protection elements to this risk. An example of a possibility to reduce the risk of an electric shock through changing the intensity of occurrence of damages to the selected protection elements was provided.
The article describes a shock safety modeling method for low-voltage electric devices, based on using a Bayesian network. This method allows for taking into account all possible combinations of the reliability and unreliability states for the shock protection elements under concern. The developed method allows for investigating electric shock incidents, analysing and assessing shock risks, as well as for determining criteria of dimensioning shock protection means, also with respect to reliability of the particular shock protection elements. Dependencies for determining and analysing the probability of appearance of reliability states of protection as well as an electric shock risk are presented in the article.