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Abstrakt

Strength and permeability properties along with microstructural evolution of hardened slurries composed of fly ash from fluidal bed combustion of brown coal and an addition of OPC/BFSC is assessed in this paper. An increase in the amount of fly ash in slurries influences the development of mechanical strength and a decrease of hydraulic conductivity. SEM, XRD, and porosity analyses confirmed formation of watertight microstructures. The structure of slurries is composed of ettringite, C-S-H phase, AFt, and AFm phases. Ettringite crystallises as relatively short needles forming compact clusters or intermixed with the C-S-H phase. The occurring C-S-H phases are mainly of type I – fibrous and type II – honeycomb
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We discuss waste, fuels, and air quality with Prof. Czesława Rosik-Dulewska from the PAS Institute of Environmental Engineering and the Department of Land Protection at the University of Opole.
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Słowa kluczowe bark-beetle forest protection

Abstrakt

How do bark-beetle outbreaks begin, how do they spread? What are the key factors that affect their population dynamics? Ongoing research has provided some understanding and knowledge, although many questions still remain to be answered fully.
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Wherein lies the essence of the two-year dispute over the management and protection of the commercial forest stands in the Białowieża Primeval Forest?
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Professor Krzysztof Spalik, Chairman of the PAS Committee for Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, tells us why the Białowieża Forest should be allowed to renew itself on its own.
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Abstrakt

Odnowienie Zamościa rozpoczęto realizować bez mała przed stu laty. Wówczas wybitni krzewiciele kultury z początkiem 20-lecia mi ę dzywojennego podjęli zamysł przywrócenia rangi tego dzieła kultury polskiej. Idea ochrony dziedzictwa kultury narodowej narastała stopniowo do czasu podjęcia pierwszych badan naukowych, kształtowania norm i zasad opieki i konserwacji. Dziś Zamość został wpisany na listę światowego dziedzictwa kultury UNESCO. Wielu rzeczy dokonano, wiele pozostało do zrobienia.
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Abstrakt

The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of the naphthalic anhydride safener on the protection of common bean cultivars BRS-Estilo (carioca) and BRS-Esplendor (black) from negative effects of herbicides. Two experiments were conducted, one for each cultivar in a complete randomized design with five replications, in a 6 × 3 factorial scheme, with six herbicide treatments: bentazon, fluazifop-P + fomesafen, bentazon + imazamox, fomesafen, cloransulam, and control without application, and three naphthalic anhydride treatments: without application, foliar application, and application via seed treatment. Visible injuries at 7, 14 and 21 days after application, photosystem II electron transport rate, and plant dry weight were evaluated. The naphthalic anhydride applied via foliar, and seed treatment reduced significantly the visible injuries in relation to the control when using the herbicides bentazon, fluazifop-P + fomesafen, bentazon + imazamox, and cloransulam. The photosystem II electron transport rate was protected by anhydride applied via foliar and seed treatment when using the herbicides bentazon, fluazifop-P + fomesafen and bentazon + + imazamox. The application of naphthalic anhydride via seed treatment protected the BRS-Estilo and BRS-Esplendor common bean cultivars, with no reductions in the plant dry weight when using the herbicides fluazifop-P + fomesafen, and fomesafen. The use of naphthalic anhydride via seed treatment and foliar application protected BRS-Estilo and BRSEsplendor common bean cultivars, from the negative effects of fluazifop-P + fomesafen and fomesafen herbicides. Thus, this practice has potential to be used in common beans.
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Odnowienie Starego Miasta w Zamościu rozpoczęto realizować bez mała przed stu laty. Wówczas wybitni krzewiciele kultury, w okresie początku 20-lecia międzywojennego, podjęli zamysł przywrócenia rangi tego dzieła kultury polskiej. Idea ochrony dziedzictwa kultury narodowej narastała stopniowo do czasu podjęcia pierwszych badan naukowych, kształtowania norm i zasad opieki i konserwacji. Dziś Zamość został wpisany na listę światowego dziedzictwa kultury UNESCO. Wielu rzeczy dokonano, wiele pozostało do zrobienia.
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This paper attempts to find out whether better quality of investor protection matters for the effect of capital ratio on loan growth of large EU banks in 1996-2011. We focus on several measures of the quality of investor protection with a proven track record in the banking literature, i.e.: anti-self-dealing index, ex-ante-control and ex-post-control of anti-self-dealing indices, and creditor protection rights index. Our results show that better investor protection decreases the procyclical impact of capital on lending. This effect is statistically significant for the ex-post-control index. This is consistent with the view that better shareholders rights reduces bank risk-taking, in particular during economic booms, which results in weakened sensitivity of bank lending to capital ratios in economic downturns. This effect holds for both unconsolidated and consolidated data and is robust to sensitivity checks.
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The cumulative results of investigations of the possibility of using the reclaimed materials after the mechanical, thermal or mechanical-thermal reclamation for making cores by means of the blowing method in the alkaline CO2 technology, are presented in the paper. Three kinds of spent sands: with furfuryl resin, bentonite and alkaline phenolic resin, obtained from the foundry, were subjected to three kinds of reclamation: mechanical, thermal and combined mechanical-thermal, applying for this aim adequate experimental devices. The obtained reclaims were assessed with regard to the degree of the matrix liberation from the determined binding material. Reclaims of moulding sands with binders of the form of resin were assessed with regard to ignition loss values and pH reaction, while reclaims of moulding sands with bentonite with regard to the residual clay content and pH value. In all cases the results of the performed sieve analyses were estimated and the average characteristic diameter dl was determined. The reclaimed matrix was applied as a full substitute of the fresh high-silica sand in typical procedures of preparing core sands used for making shaped samples for bending strength investigations, Rg u .
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Though current conservation policy in Poland refl ects world trends and approaches to action, compliance with all of its assumptions would entail the Polish authorities remodelling both the system and the methods by which natural resources are managed. On the one hand this requires a change of approach to the management of natural resources from the traditional, purely nature-related one, to a more modern inter-disciplinary one that takes in social and economic conditioning. On the other hand, a system need to be put in place to allow these ideas to be introduced in practice. The work described here deals with the participation of different stakeholder groups in nature management, with this regarded as a method of increasing the latter’s effi ciency. The many examples (of good practice) presented by the author well illustrate the wisdom of the approach, which often seems to achieve success where it is attempted.
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The book focuses on the issue of nature protection in urban areas. The subject matter of the research was the formal and legal conditions of protected areas in cities. The analysis regarded Polish and global solutions in the scope of the nature protection categories in urban areas, objectives of creating urban protected areas and instruments for fulfi lling the aims of protection in the spatial aspect. The research on globally applied solutions in the scope of nature protection was based on the analysis of source literature and legal acts on nature conservation in cities situated in various countries. As a result, four major types of urban protected areas were distinguished in 80 different cities. The research enabled formulating major characteristics of urban protected areas. Those were, in particular: the integrated approach to the protection of natural and cultural resources and equal treatment of the natural and social objectives of protection. This was the basis for a critical analysis of domestic solutions in the subject matter. The research on formal and legal conditions for the functioning of protected areas in Polish cities was conducted in the administrative borders of voivodeship capitals. The research included 18 cities in total. The analysis concerned basic documents related to the widely understood management of protected areas, including, in particular: legal acts establishing individual protected areas and protected areas management plans, as well as the studies of conditions and directions for the spatial development of communes and local spatial development plans. The research work regarded spatial forms of nature protection, including: national parks, natural reserves, regional parks, protected landscape areas, Natura 2000 areas, ecological sites, documentation sites and nature-landscape complexes. The research included 229 protected areas in total. For the abovementioned protected areas, the following aspects were analyzed: subject matter and objectives of their protection, premises for creating their functional and spatial infrastructure and methods for their development, as well as the scope of provisions in urban spatial planning documents in the abovementioned respect. The research enabled identifying the key problems in the functioning of protected areas in Polish cities, including: • small stability of regulations on nature protection and consequential lack of continuity in the protection of naturally valuable areas, • noticeable tendency to loosen the regulations in the subjected scope, which leads to marginalizing the issues of nature protection while planning urban development. • no coordination of actions performed by various stakeholders in regard to the protected areas, • failure to adjust nature protection objectives to conditions resulting from the location in urban areas, • lack of efficient tools to fulfi ll the nature protection objectives in the spatial aspect. Based on the identifi ed models of environmental protection in urban areas, premises were formulated with regard to the new model for environmental protection in Polish cities. Three scenarios were proposed with regard to potential changes: modification-oriented, reorganization-oriented and radical. The modification-oriented scenario includes: • adding the social aspect to the objectives of nature protection in cities, • extending the scope of the nature conservation act of new nature protection categories appropriate for urban areas, • increasing the importance of the study of conditions and directions for the spatial development and protection plans with regard to the planning permission. Reorganization-oriented scenario provides for: • verifying the objectives of nature protection, • introducing the obligation to prepare management plans for all protected areas in cities, • introducing the obligation to update and prepare development plans for areas were nature conservation areas were established. The radical scenario includes: • introducing new categories of nature protection in urban areas, including categories that ensure preserving and shaping the connectivity of protected area, • exposing ecosystem services as the major motif of nature protection in cities, • introducing new instruments for managing protected areas in cities. Applying one of the abovementioned scenarios may signifi cantly improve the efficiency of natural protection in cities. It may also contribute to introducing a more innovative model for urban nature protection. Each scenarios will entail the implementation of quite significant legislative changes, either in the scope of nature protection and spatial planning.
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The article presents the problem of the settlements development in the Ojców National Park (ONP) and its buffer zone, both located in the suburban area of Cracow (Poland). The aim of the research was to recognize the social perception of this phenomenon, as well as the residents opinion about the limitations in spatial management related to the functioning of the Park. Interviews were made among 204 residents, and 40 representatives of local self-governments, cultural institutions, associations, administrators of tourist facilities and entrepreneurs. The local community perceives constraints in the new buildings construction and in enlargement or modernization of the existing ones as the main problem for people living in the ONP or its buffer zone. Driven by their particular interests, residents advocate the further development of the settlements and tourist infrastructure within the Park and the buffer zone, the liberalization of regulations, and even the liquidation of the Park’s buffer zone. They do not understand that the natural and landscape values (highly appreciated by them) can be degraded due to these activities.
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This paper presents a three-dimensional model of an airbag located outside of a small city car at the front bumper, which is intended to protect the vehicle against the effects of road traffic collisions. Results of numerical simulations of airbag operation in case of collision with two types of obstacles are presented: a flat, vertical wall and a circular pillar with a diameter of 200 mm. The paper presents the physical model, which is the subject of simulation, along with its mathematical description and the numerical calculation scheme used.
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Zarówno problem ochrony złóż, jak i proces likwidacji zakładu górniczego nie doczekały się skutecznych rozwiązań w prawie krajowym, pomimo że są to zagadnienia bardzo aktualne. Sytuacja taka skłoniła autorów artykułu do szczegółowej analizy tych zagadnień. Ilość złóż porzuconych, o zaniechanej eksploatacji, które ujawnia Bilans zasobów złóż kopalin, powinna wpłynąć, zdaniem autorów, na tworzoną od lat politykę surowcową państwa, a w szczególności racjonalną gospodarkę surowcami, w tym również na cały system koncesjonowania, zabezpieczania złóż i procedurę likwidacji zakładów górniczych. Jako dobry gospodarz surowców, które dała nam Matka Ziemia, nie możemy pozwolić, by system koncesjonowania złóż, a takż procedury likwidacji zakładów górniczych bez właściwej staranności, powodowały brak zabezpieczenia tych złóż. Racjonalna gospodarka surowcowa, w tym zagwarantowanie możliwości eksploatacji przez przyszłe pokolenia, przy jednoczesnym braku skutecznego egzekwowania procesu likwidacji zakładu, powoduje, zdaniem autorów, konieczność podjęcia działań. Działania te nie powinny utrudniać przyszłej eksploatacji złóż z powodu źle przeprowadzonej likwidacji. Przeprowadzona analiza wskazuje na właściwe działania w tym zakresie. Autorzy szczegółowo prześledzili regulacje prawne na przestrzeni minionego wieku, zestawiając je z aktualnie obowiązującymi przepisami i wskazując słabe punkty systemu w zakresie zabezpieczenia złóż, w szczególności części złóż niewyeksploatowanych. Krytyka objęła zarówno regulacje ustawowe – Prawo geologiczne i górnicze, jak i akty wykonawcze w zakresie zabezpieczenia złóż. Odrębnej analizie została poddana procedura likwidacji zakładu górniczego w aspekcie zabezpieczenia złóż dla zakładów górniczych działających na podstawie koncesji marszałkowskich. Przedstawiony w układzie schematu blokowego proces, jasno uwidacznia słabe punkty obecnie działającego systemu.
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Abstrakt

If we want to provide the efficient training intervention to increase the duration of using hearing protection devices (HPDs) by workers, we need a tool that can estimate the person’s hearing threshold taking into account noise exposure level, age, and work history, and compare them with audiometry to find out the percent reduction of workers hearing loss. First, the workers noise exposure level was determined according to ISO 9612, then 4000 Hz audiometry was done to find age and work history. On basis of ISO 1999 the hearing threshold was estimated and if the hearing protection device was not used continuously and correctly, the hearing protection device’s actual performance was reduced adjusted with person’s audiometry. After training intervention, the estimate was done again and was compared with the adjusted audiometry. According to ISO 1999 standard estimation results, the percent reduction of the workers hearing loss level was 6.48 dB in intervention group. This level remained unchanged in control group. The mean score of hearing threshold estimation (standard ISO 1999) was statistically more significant than mean score of hearing threshold (p-value ¡ 0.001). The results show not significant change in control group due to lack of changing of noise exposure level. In regards to the results of hearing threshold estimation based on ISO 1999 and comparing with workers audiometry, it can be seen that BASNEF training intervention increases the duration of using the HPDs and it could be effective in reducing hearing threshold related to noise.
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Plastic rocks can creep, therefore the knowledge of the rheological properties of the drilled formations is an important element of the drilling process and when choosing borehole designs. These properties of plastic formations also influence the way in which appropriate drilling technology and drilling mud properties are selected. The article presents the effect of basic rheological parameters of salt from the Fore-Sudetic Monocline deposit on the drilling of boreholes in the mining area of KGHM Polska Miedź, which in the future can be used as a good drilling practice to improve the safety and efficiency of drilling. The process of drilling in plastic rocks may be hindered. Salt is a plastic rock and in the analyzed rock mass it is deposited at a considerable depth. The caprock exerts big loads on it, beside the temperature in the deposit intensifies the rheological properties of the rock. The creep process causes that the borehole contracts, therefore the knowledge about the rheological properties of the drilled rock is very important for establishing the safe time in which the well may remain uncased. The paper is devoted to the influence of basic rheological parameters of salt bed in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline on the process of drilling of a borehole in the area of KGHM Polska Miedź as these data can be used in drilling practice in the future.
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Fortyfikacje są cennymi elementami dziedzictwa kulturowego obecnymi w wielu polskich miastach. Niestety nie zawsze są właściwie chronione i wykorzystywane, mimo że nierzadko mają status obiektów zabytkowych. Narzędzi potencjalnie umożliwiających wzmocnienie ochrony fortyfikacji dostarcza planowanie przestrzenne. Badania obejmowały szczegółową analizę zapisów zawartych w studiach uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego oraz miejscowych planach zagospodarowania przestrzennego, dotyczących twierdz pierścieniowych w Poznaniu i Wrocławiu. W studiach uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego obu miast można znaleźć odniesienia do położenia i wykorzystania twierdz pierścieniowych. Tereny fortyfikacji w Poznaniu objęte są 9 miejscowymi planami zagospodarowania przestrzennego, 5 kolejnych planów obejmujących swoim zasięgiem fortyfikacje znajduje się w przygotowaniu. Fortyfikacje twierdzy pierścieniowej we Wrocławiu objęte były 9 miejscowymi planami zagospodarowania przestrzennego. Wyniki analiz dokumentów planistycznych wskazują na niewykorzystywanie w pełni narzędzi umożliwiających ochronę fortyfikacji, oferowanych przez system planowania przestrzennego. W opracowaniach pomijany jest kontekst i walory krajobrazowe fortyfikacji, brak prób wiązania terenów zieleni fortecznej w system oraz – w przypadku Wrocławia – brak ujmowania zieleni na fortyfikacjach jako istotnego waloru. W większości przypadków w opracowaniach występuje niska szczegółowość zapisów związanych z ochroną obiektów historycznych.
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Abstrakt

Twierdza w czasach budowy Zamościa powstawała w ścisłym związku z geometrią widzenia. Przejawiało się to zarówno w sferze utylitarnej jak i estetycznej, dotyczyło skali urbanistycznej jak również skali dalekich ekspozycji. Badania widokowe wykonane w ramach Studium kształtowania terenów pofortecznych Twierdzy Zamość pozwoliły ocenić współczesny stan ekspozycji i określić możliwości ich korekty. Ich efekt stał się istotnym elementem koncepcji projektowej zarówno w warstwie kompozycyjnej jak również w części związanej z udostępnianiem turystycznym.
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The transition of power grids to implement large amounts of nonsynchronous renewables reduces the inertia in the power system. Therefore, the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) after a fault of given energy is higher in low inertia grids than in grids with mainly synchronous machines operating. Standard faults for the design of existing synchronous machines assume fixed frequency grids, in which an electrically close fault happens. It is not tested, if the machines can ride through transient disturbances with high ROCOF. For ROCOF values of up to 1 Hz/s as foreseen for the upcoming grid code of the Republic of Ireland and up to 2 Hz/s for Northern Ireland, a thorough verification, if generators are capable to ride through such events is necessary. For this study, ROCOF frequency traces provided by the transmission system operators (TSOs) of Ireland were first benchmarked with a full-grid model and in a second step impressed on a model of generators connected to the power grid via a step-up transformer to study transient stability and nonlinear response of the generator. This paper focusses on the ability of nine different synchronous machines to stay connected to the transmission system during severe ROCOF events without losing synchronism.
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The paper, especially dealt with problems of reclamation of used furan sand, carried out in new, vibratory sand reclamation unit REGMAS developed by researches from AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering in Cracow (Poland). Functional characteristics of reclamation unit as well as the results of reclamation of used sand with furfuryl resin are discussed in the paper. The quality of reclaim was tested by means of the LOI and pH value, dust content in the reclaim and at least by the the quality of the castings produced in moulds prepared with the use of reclaimed matrix.
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Abstrakt

There are two methods to produce primary copper: hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical. Copper concentrates, from which copper matte is melted, constitute the charge at melting primary copper in the pyrometallurgical process. This process consists of a few stages, of which the basic ones are roasting and smelting. Smelting process may be bath and flash. Slag from copper production, on the end of process contain less 0,8%. It is treat as a waste or used other field, but only in a few friction. The slag amount for waste management or storage equaled 11 741 – 16 011 million tons in 2011. This is a serious ecological problem. The following slags were investigated: slag originated from the primary copper production process in the flash furnace of the Outtokumpuja Company in HM Głogów 2 (Sample S2): the same slag after the copper removal performed according the up to now technology (Sample S1): slag originated from the primary copper production process in the flash furnace of the Outtokumpuja Company in HM Głogów 2, after the copper removal performed according the new technology (Sample S3). In practice, all tested slags satisfy the allowance criteria of storing on the dumping grounds of wastes other than hazardous and neutral.
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