Excitation of the entropy mode in the field of intense sound, that is, acoustic heating, is theoretically considered in this work. The dynamic equation for an excess density which specifies the entropy mode, has been obtained by means of the method of projections. It takes the form of the diffusion equation with an acoustic driving force which is quadratically nonlinear in the leading order. The diffusion coefficient is proportional to the thermal conduction, and the acoustic force is proportional to the total attenuation. Theoretical description of instantaneous heating allows to take into account aperiodic and impulsive sounds. Acoustic heating in a half-space and in a planar resonator is discussed. The aim of this study is to evaluate acoustic heating and determine the contribution of thermal conduction and mechanical viscosity in different boundary problems. The conclusions are drawn for the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The instantaneous dynamic equation for variations in temperature, which specifies the entropy mode, is solved analytically for some types of acoustic exciters. The results show variation in temperature as a function of time and distance from the boundary for different boundary conditions.
The nonlinear interaction of wave and non-wave modes in a gas planar flow are considered. Attention is mainly paid to the case when one sound mode is dominant and excites the counter-propagating sound mode and the entropy mode. The modes are determined by links between perturbations of pressure, density, and fluid velocity. This definition follows from the linear conservation equations in the differential form and thermodynamic equations of state. The leading order system of coupling equations for interacting modes is derived. It consists of diffusion inhomogeneous equations. The main aim of this study is to identify the principle features of the interaction and to establish individual contributions of attenuation (mechanical and thermal attenuation) in the solution to the system.
The study makes an attempt to model a complete vibrating guitar including its non-linear features, specifically the tension-compression of truss rod and tension of strings. The purpose of such a model is to examine the influence of design parameters on tone. Most experimental studies are flawed by uncertainties introduced by materials and assembly of an instrument. Since numerical modelling of instruments allows for deterministic control over design parameters, a detailed numerical model of folk guitar was analysed and an experimental study was performed in order to simulate the excitation and measurement of guitar vibration. The virtual guitar was set up like a real guitar in a series of geometrically non-linear analyses. Balancing of strings and truss rod tension resulted in a realistic initial state of deformation, which affected the subsequent spectral analyses carried out after dynamic simulations. Design parameters of the guitar were freely manipulated without introducing unwanted uncertainties typical for experimental studies. The study highlights the importance of acoustic medium in numerical models.
The sound speed and parameters of nonlinearity B/A, C/A in a fluid are expressed in terms of coefficients in the Taylor series expansion of an excess internal energy, in powers of excess pressure and density. That allows to conclude about features of the sound propagation in fluids, the internal energy of which is known as a function of pressure and density. The sound speed and parameters of nonlinearity in the mixture consisting of boiling water and its vapor under different temperatures, are evaluated as functions of mass concentration of the vapor. The relations analogous to that in the Riemann wave in an ideal gas are obtained in a fluid obeying an arbitrary equation of state. An example concerns the van der Waals gases. An excess pressure in the reflected wave, which appears when standard or nonlinear absorption in a fluid takes place, is evaluated in an arbitrary fluid.
The aim of the paper is a theoretical analysis of propagation of high-intensity acoustic waves throughout a bubble layer. A simple model in the form of a layer with uniformly distributed mono-size spherical bubbles is considered. The mathematical model of the pressure wave’s propagation in a bubbly liquid layer is constructed using the linear non-dissipative wave equation and assuming that oscillations of a single bubble satisfy the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The models of the phase sound speed, changes of resonant frequency of bubbles and damping coefficients in a bubbly liquid are compared and discussed. The relations between transmitted and reflected waves and their second harmonic amplitudes are analyzed. A numerical analysis is carried out for different environmental parameters such as layer thicknesses and values of the volume fraction as well as for different parameters of generated signals. Examples of results of the numerical modeling are presented.
Source/filter models have frequently been used to model sound production of the vocal apparatus and musical instruments. Beginning in 1968, in an effort to measure the transfer function (i.e., transmission response or filter characteristic) of a trombone while being played by expert musicians, sound pressure signals from the mouthpiece and the trombone bell output were recorded in an anechoic room and then subjected to harmonic spectrum analysis. Output/input ratios of the signals’ harmonic amplitudes plotted vs. harmonic frequency then became points on the trombone’s transfer function. The first such recordings were made on analog 1/4 inch stereo magnetic tape. In 2000 digital recordings of trombone mouthpiece and anechoic output signals were made that provide a more accurate measurement of the trombone filter characteristic. Results show that the filter is a high-pass type with a cutoff frequency around 1000 Hz. Whereas the characteristic below cutoff is quite stable, above cutoff it is extremely variable, depending on level. In addition, measurements made using a swept-sine-wave system in 1972 verified the high-pass behavior, but they also showed a series of resonances whose minima correspond to the harmonic frequencies which occur under performance conditions. For frequencies below cutoff the two types of measurements corresponded well, but above cutoff there was a considerable difference. The general effect is that output harmonics above cutoff are greater than would be expected from linear filter theory, and this effect becomes stronger as input pressure increases. In the 1990s and early 2000s this nonlinear effect was verified by theory and measurements which showed that nonlinear propagation takes place in the trombone, causing a wave steepening effect at high amplitudes, thus increasing the relative strengths of the upper harmonics.
Weakly nonlinear sound propagation in a gas where molecular vibrational relaxation takes place is studied. New equations which govern the sound in media where the irreversible relaxation may take place are derived and discussed. Their form depends on the regime of excitation of oscillatory degrees of freedom, equilibrium (reversible) or non-equilibrium (irreversible), and on the comparative frequency of the sound in relation to the inverse time of relaxation. Additional nonlinear terms increase standard nonlinearity of the high-frequency sound in the equilibrium regime of vibrational excitation and decrease otherwise. As for the nonlinearity of the low-frequency sound, the conclusions are opposite. Appearance of a non-oscillating additional part which is a linear function of the distance from the transducer is an unusual property of nonlinear distortions of harmonic at the transducer high-frequency sound