The bonding state of the asphalt layers in a road pavement structure significantly affects its fatigue life. These bondings, therefore, require detailed tests and optimization. In this paper, the analyses of the correlation between the results of laboratory static tests and the results of fatigue tests of asphalt mixture interlayer bondings were performed. The existence of the relationships between selected parameters was confirmed. In the future, the results of these analyses may allow for assessment of interlayer bondings' fatigue life based on the results of quick and relatively easy static tests.
Twenty-eight two-, three-, four-, and five-component amine mixtures have been evaluated as possible activators of CO2 absorption into aqueous carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. Measurements were per- formed using a pressure autoclave with a sparger at conditions close to industrial ones. On the basis of these results, a formula for a new, more efficient amine activator named INS13 was developed. The activator was tested both in a pilot plant and on an industrial scale in an ammonia plant producing 300 tons/day of ammonia. Activator INS13 was applied in a number of ammonia plants in Poland and abroad.
Increasing environmental pressure against waste disposal, particularly fine waste surface storage and concern about mining damages have resulted in an increase in the popularity of a fly ash, tailing and binding agent mixture used as compaction grout of roof fall rocks in a gob area of longwalls. Backfilling of voids forming as a result of exploitation with the fall of roof with mixtures containing fine-grained industrial wastes is a common practice in coal mines. It is aimed at achieving numerous technological and ecological advantages as well as at controlling mining hazards. Research on hydraulic transport of fine-grained slurry conducted to date focused mainly on issues related to the analysis of the conditions related to pipeline transportation. The processes concerning the propagation of mixtures within the gob, on the other hand, remain largely unknown. The process of flow of fine-grained slurry through the caving is subject to a series of factors related, among other things, with the properties of the applied wastes and mixtures, the characteristics of the gob as well as the variability of these properties during the flow through the gob and in time. Due to the lack of sufficient knowledge pertaining to the changes taking place in the gob and in the slurry while it penetrates the gobs, no methods allowing for the design and optimization of the gob grouting process have been established so far. The paper presents the selected results of laboratory tests regarding the flow of ash and water mixtures in a model of a gob, pertaining to two selected types of fly ash produced in hard coal combustion, particularly concerning the impact of the type of the ash and the density of the slurry on the effectiveness of the gob grouting process.
The exploitation and processing of lignite in the Bełchatów region is connected with the formation of various mineral waste materials: varied in origin, mineral and chemical composition and raw material properties of the accompanying minerals, ashes and slags from lignite combustion and reagipsum from wet flue gas desulphurisation installations. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests whose main purpose was to obtain data referring to the potential use of fly ashes generated in the Bełchatów Power Plant and selected accompanying minerals exploited in the Bełchatów Mine in the form of self-solidification mixtures. The beidellite clays were considered as the most predisposed for use from the accompanying minerals , due to pozzolanic and sorption properties and swelling capacity. Despite the expected beneficial effects of clay minerals from the smectite group on the self-settling process as well as the stability of such blends after solidification, the results of physical-mechanical tests (compressive strength and water repellence) were unsatisfactory. It was necessary to use Ca (OH)2, obtained from the lacustrine chalk as an activator of the self-settling process It was necessary to use lacustrine chalk as an activator of the self-solidification process. The presence of calcium will allow the formation of cement phases which will be able to strongly bond the skeletal grains. Also, the addition of reagipsum to the composition of the mixture would contribute to the improvement of the physico-mechanical parameters. The elevated SO4 2– ion in the mixture during the solidification allows for the crystallization of the sulphate phases in the pore space to form bridges between the ash and clay minerals. The use of mixtures in land reclamation unfavourably transformed by opencast mining in the Bełchatów region would result in measurable ecological and economic benefits and would largely solve the problem of waste disposal from the from the operation and processing of lignite energy.
In this work, an assessment and comparison of the quality of selected bentonites and bentonite mixtures was made. The samples consisted of available foundry materials used for bonding green sands. Determining the homogeneity degree and specific surface area of the grains allowed us to compare the examined materials and determine their influence on other parameters. On the basis of a thermal analysis of the bentonites or bentonite mixtures, the changes occurring in the sample during its heating were determined. Determining the potential for ion exchange and montmorillonite content enabled us to assess the binding properties of the materials. The preparation of six green sands with different bentonites or bentonite mixtures gave us the opportunity to assess the changes in apparent density, permeability, compressive strength and friability as a function of humidity, and the impact of different materials on the mentioned parameters. Their charts were analyzed, and the molding sand with the addition of bentonite or a bentonite mixture was selected for which these parameters are favorable. On this basis, the best-presented binding material was assessed and selected.
The paper presents test results for the assessment of the tracer content in a three-component (green peas, sorghum, maize) feed mixture that is based on the fluorescent method. The homogeneity of mixtures was determined on the basis of the maize content (as the key component), which was treated with fluorescent substance: tinopal, rhodamine B, uranine and eosin. The key components were wet-treated with fluorescent substances with different concentrations. Feed components were mixed in a vertical funnel-flow mixer. 10 samples were collected from each mixed batch. Samples were placed in a chamber equipped with UV light and, then, an image recorded as BMP file was generated. The image was analysed by means of the software programme Patan. On the basis of the analyses conducted, data on the maize content marked with a fluorescent marker were obtained. Additionally, the content of the key component was determined in a conventional manner – using an analytical scale. Results indicate the possibility of using this method for homogeneity assessment of the three-component grain mixture. From these tests, fluorescent substances that can be applied in the case of maize as a key component, together with their minimum concentrations, were identified: tinopal 0.3%, rhodamine B 0.001%.
In the design of asphalt mixtures for paving, the choice of components has a remarkable importance,as requirements of quality and durability must be assured in use, guaranteeing adequate standardsof safety and comfort. In this paper, an approach of analysis on the aggregate materials using fractal geometry is proposed. Following an analytical and an experimental approach, it was possible to find a correlation betweencharacteristics of the asphalt concrete (specific gravity and porosity) and the fractal dimension ofthe aggregate mixtures. The studies revealed that this approach allows to draw the optimal fractal dimension and, conse-quently, it can be used to choose an appropriate aggregate gradation for the specific application;once the appropriate initial physical parameters are finalized. This fractal approach could be employed for predicting the porosity of mixed asphalt concretes,given as input the fractal characteristics of the aggregate mixtures of the concrete materials.
Bentonite is clay rock, which is created by decomposition of vulcanic glass. It is formed from mixture of clay minerals of smectite group, mainly montmorillonite, beidellite and nontronite. Its typical characteristics is, that when in contact with water, it intensively swells. First who used this term was W.C. Knight in 1887. The rock had been named after town Fort Benton in American state Montana. For its interesting technological properties and whiteness has wide technological use. Bentonite is selectively mined and according to its final use separately modified, which results in high quality product with specific parameters. In the beginning of 21st century belong bentonite moulding mixtures in foundry to always perspective. Mainly increased ratio of ductile cast iron castings production cannot be ensured without the need of quality bentonite. Great area of scope remains to further research of moulding materials, which return also to bentonite producers.
The work determined the influence of aluminium in the amount from about 0.6% to about 8% on graphitization of cast iron with relatively high silicon content (3.4%-3.9%) and low manganese content (about 0.1%). The cast iron was spheroidized with cerium mixture and graphitized with ferrosilicon. It was found that the degree of graphitization increases with an increase in aluminium content in cast iron up to 2.8%, then decreases. Nodular and vermicular graphite precipitates were found after the applied treatment in cast iron containing aluminium in the amount from about 1.9% to about 8%. The Fe3AlCx carbides, increasing brittleness and deteriorating the machinability of cast iron, were not found in cast iron containing up to about 6.8% Al. These carbides were revealed only in cast iron containing about 8% Al.
Casting quality depends on many factors including the quality of the input materials, technology, material securing and last but not least, the mould into which the casting is casted. By pouring into a single-shot mould, based mainly on 1st generation binders, is is a very important factor. Basically, a bentonite mixture represents either a three- or four-component system, but each component of the system is a heterogeneous substance. This heterogeneity punctuates mainly a non-stationary heat field, presented throughout the whole process of the casting production. The most important component is a binder and in the case of first generation binders mostly bentonites are used - clays that contain minimum of 80% of montmorillonite
Analysis of the use of the Russian materials (liquid glass and softening additives) has been made in accordance with the modern requirements for use in the technological processes of casting as binding materials in the production of large-sized steel railway casting. The reasons for poor knockout of liquid glass mixtures have been investigated. A complex action softening additive has been recommended for a better knocking-out ability. This solution provides a softening effect at the points of maximum formation of the liquid glass matrix strength in the processes of polymorphic transformation of the material under the influence of elevated temperatures as the result of filling the mold cavity by the melt. It has been shown that the use of additives of complex action leads to the decrease in the specific work of the knockout by four – seven times depending on the composition of the mixture and the design features of the casting. Experimental-industrial tests of the proposed method for softening the liquid glass mixtures have been made and the "Front Buffer Stop" casting has been made (for the rolling stock of locomotives and railway wagons). The tests confirmed the effectiveness and expediency of implementation of new liquid glass mixtures with softening additives in conditions of foundry enterprises.
The paper presents the results of experimental heat transfer and pressure drop during condensation of the single component refrigerant R134a and zeotropic mixtures R404A, R407C, and R410A in tube minichannels of internal diameter from the range 0.31–3.30 mm. The local values and the average of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in the whole range of the change in mass quality were measured. On the basis of the obtained test results there was illustrated the influence of the change of mass vapor quality, the mass flux density, and the inner diameter of channel on the studied parameters. These results were compared with the calculation results based on the relations postulated by other authors. The discrepancy range was ± 50%. On the basis of given test results own correlation was developed to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of tested refrigerants which presents the obtained results in a range of discrepancy of ±25%.
The use of shredded tyre in civil engineering applications is a significant potential end use market. The reuse of tyre chips may not only address growing environmental and economic concerns, but also help to solve geotechnical problems associated with low shear strength. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the properties of tyre chips and tyre chips – sand mixture, and to find the mixture with the highest shear strength. In this study, an experimental testing program was undertaken using a large – scale triaxial apparatus with the goal of evaluating the optimum percentage of tyre chips in sand. The effects on shear strength of varying percentage of tyre chips and varying confining pressure were studied. Tyre chips content was suspected to have influence on stress – strain and volumetric strain behaviour of the mixture. Some tests were conducted to check the influence of number of used membranes, of saturation and compaction, on sample properties.
The aggregate applied for the wearing course has a significant influence on skid resistance of road surfaces. However, it is difficult to evaluate the behaviour of road surface in use on the basis of the Polished Stone Value (PSV) determined for the aggregate according to the so called ‘British method’. The British method, which is currently used in many countries, does not allow to determine the influence of neither the grain size of the aggregate nor the type of the wearing course on skid resistance of road surface. The present paper suggests a method for evaluation of the British Pendulum Number (BPN) for road surfaces in laboratory conditions. The authors assumed the BPN for polished slabs, made from asphalt mixtures, as the criterion. The index was measured with the British Pendulum Tester. The simulation of the process was conducted on research stand (called slab polisher) built at Bialystok University of Technology (BUT). The results of laboratory tests indicate that surfaces from asphalt concrete (AC) have slightly higher values of BPN in comparison with the values determined for surfaces made from stone mastic asphalt (SMA).
Speaker‘s emotional states are recognized from speech signal with Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The influence of white noise on a typical emotion recogniztion system is studied. The emotion classifier is implemented with Gaussian mixture model (GMM). A Chinese speech emotion database is used for training and testing, which includes nine emotion classes (e.g. happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, anxiety, hesitation, confidence and neutral state). Two speech enhancement algorithms are introduced for improved emotion classification. In the experiments, the Gaussian mixture model is trained on the clean speech data, while tested under AWGN with various signal to noise ratios (SNRs). The emotion class model and the dimension space model are both adopted for the evaluation of the emotion recognition system. Regarding the emotion class model, the nine emotion classes are classified. Considering the dimension space model, the arousal dimension and the valence dimension are classified into positive regions or negative regions. The experimental results show that the speech enhancement algorithms constantly improve the performance of our emotion recognition system under various SNRs, and the positive emotions are more likely to be miss-classified as negative emotions under white noise environment.
This paper deals with production of safety inlay for steam locomotive valve by the Patternless Process method. For the moulds creation was used moulding mixtures of II. generation, whereas binder was used a water glass. CNC miller was used for creation of mould cavity. Core was created also by milling into block made of moulding compound. In this article will be presented also making of 3D model, setting of milling tool paths and parameters for milling.
The paper includes the TG-DTG thermogravimetric air-testing of a cellulose mixture modified with the additives of expanded vermiculite or expanded perlite. A thermal degradation test was carried out at 1000°C with a simultaneous qualitative analysis of the emitted gases. During the thermal degradation process, the thermal effects were also measured. The research results indicate that expanded vermiculite or expanded perlite do not emit toxic gases during thermal degradation. The cellulose mixture modification, with the additives of expanded vermiculite or perlite, does not result in the creation of new gaseous compounds in the process of thermal degradation. A s investigated below, the mixtures tested in this article find application in gating systems for supplying liquid metal in no-bake moulds. Such cellulose-based material solutions shall allow the foundry industry to introduce less gas vaporising technologies within the entire casting production process.
The paper attempts to determine the impact of fuel impurities on the spark discharge energy and the wear of the spark plug electrode. Spark plugs were analyzed in two typical configurations of the ignition system. A number of tests were conducted to determine the wear of the spark plug electrode exposed to different types of impurities. The spark discharge energy for new and worn spark plugs was determined through calculation.
In the article the equations have been worked making it possible to model the motion of freerunning grain mixture flow on a flat sloping vibrating sieve within the framework of shallow water theory. Free-running grain mixture is considered as a heterogeneous system consisting of two phases, one of which represents solid particles and the other one gas. The mixture is brought into a state of fluidity by means of high-frequency vibration imposition. Coefficients of internal and external friction and dynamic-viscosity decrease by exponential law as the fluctuation intensity is increased. When considering grain mixture dynamics, the following assumptions are put forward: we ignore the air presence in space between particles, we consider the density of particles to be constant, the free-running mixture is similar to Newtonian liquid. The basic system of equations of grain mixture dynamics is due to the laws of continuum mechanics. The equation of continuity is issued from the law of conservation of mass, and the dynamic equations are issued from the law of variation of momentum. The stress tensor equals to the sum of the equilibrium tensor and the dissipative tensor. The equilibrium part of the stress tensor is represented by the spherical tensor, which is found to conform to Pascal law for liquids, and the dissipative part, which is responsible for viscous force effect and defined by Navier-Stokes law. Boundary conditions on the surfaces (restricting the capacity of the free-running grain mixture) have been researched. The distributions of apparent density and velocity field are assigned at the inlet and outlet flow sections of the mixture. The normal velocity component of the grain mixture on the side frames and on the sieve becomes zero, which meets the no-fluid-loss condition of the medium through the frame. Beyond that point at this time we satisfy dynamic conditions, which characterize the mixture sliding down the hard frame, motion flow resistance force is represented as average velocity linear dependence. A kinematic condition and two dynamic ones are stipulated on the free surface layer. One of the conditions states mass flow continuity across the free surface, the other one states the stress continuity while passing through the free surface. The basic premise of planned motion equations is the condition of small size of flow depth in comparison with its width. With the use of shallow water theory the basic principles of the equations of flow dynamics are simplified and for their solving a Cauchy problem can be set.
A novel VC (voice conversion) method based on hybrid SVR (support vector regression) and GMM (Gaussian mixture model) is presented in the paper, the mapping abilities of SVR and GMM are exploited to map the spectral features of the source speaker to those of target ones. A new strategy of F0 transformation is also presented, the F0s are modeled with spectral features in a joint GMM and predicted from the converted spectral features using the SVR method. Subjective and objective tests are carried out to evaluate the VC performance; experimental results show that the converted speech using the proposed method can obtain a better quality than that using the state-of-the-art GMM method. Meanwhile, a VC method based on non-parallel data is also proposed, the speaker-specific information is investigated using the SVR method and preliminary subjective experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible when a parallel corpus is not available.
There are two basic types of coal mine gases: gas from demethanation of coal deposits, and ventilation gas; containing combustible ingredients (mainly methane, CH4). Effective use of these gases is an important technical and ecological issue (greenhouse gas emissions), mainly due to the presence of methane in these gases. Serious difficulties in this area (e.g. using them as the fuel for internal combustion (IC) engine) occur mainly in relation to the ventilation gas, whereas the gas from demethanation of coal deposits can be used directly as the fuel for internal combustion engines. The proposed solution of this problem shows that the simple mixing of these two gases (without supplying of oxygen from ambient air) is the effective way to producing the gaseous combustible mixture, which can be used for the fueling of internal combustion gas engines. To evaluate the energy usefulness of this way produced combustible mixture the process indicator has been proposed, which expresses the share of the chemical energy supplied with the ventilation gas, in the whole chemical energy of the produced fuel combustible mixture. It was also established how (e.g., by appropriate choice of the mixed gas streams) can be achieved significantly higher values of the characteristic process indicator, while retaining full energy usefulness of the gained gaseous mixture to power combustion engines.
The main bulk density representation in the molding material is opening material, refractory granular material with a particle size of 0.02 mm. It forms a shell molds and cores, and therefore in addition to activating the surface of the grain is one of the most important features angularity and particle size of grains. These last two features specify the porosity and therefore the permeability of the mixture, and thermal dilatation of tension from braking dilation, the thermal conductivity of the mixture and even largely affect the strength of molds and cores, and thus the surface quality of castings.  Today foundries, which use the cast iron for produce of casts, are struggling with surface defects on the casts. One of these defects are veining. They can be eliminated in several ways. Veining are foundry defects, which arise as a result of tensions generated at the interface of the mold and metal. This tension also arises due to abrupt thermal expansion of silica sand and is therefore in the development of veining on the surface of casts deal primarily influences and characteristics of the filler material – opening material in the production of iron castings.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the selectivity of nicosulfuron, alone and in combinations, applied in post-emergence (V4) of glyphosate and sulfonylurea tolerant (RR/STS) soybean. The experiments were conducted in 2015/16 and 2016/17, in Piracicaba – state of São Paulo (SP). In 2016/17, the experiment was also conducted in Palotina – state of Paraná (PR). The experiment was a randomized block design, with four repetitions and 16 treatments, with combinations of nicosulfuron, glyphosate, chlorimuron, sulfometuron and cloransulam, applied alone or in tank mixture. Crop injury and variables related to agronomic performance were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared by the Tukey test. The results obtained are significant in the positioning of herbicides in RR/STS soybean, since in the five experiments, all the treatments were selective, except for glyphosate + sulfometuron which reduced the yield of a cultivar (CD 2630 RR/STS) in the 2015/16 season.
The formulas have been entered and approved for the calculation of porosity distribution on the thickness of layer of fine-grained mixture during its separation by the inclined flat or vertical cylinder vibro sieves. It has been attained as a result of approximation of tabular information of the obtained numerical computer integration of the specially worked out nonlinear differential equations of the second order in a dimensionless form. For approximation, the function of degree coefficients and index is used for the degrees which are certain by the Aitken's method. Coefficients of the entered analytical dependence are the vibro sieves related to the parameters obtained by mechanical descriptions of the separated material. Coefficients of the entered analytical dependence are related to the parameters of vibro sieves and mechanical descriptions of the separated material. In the case of cylinder vertical vibro sieve the action of centrifugal force is also taken into account. The method of mixture porosity calculation does not need a computer numerical integration of nonlinear differential equations conducted by other authors for solving this problem. Comparison of numerical results of the proposed analytical method of calculation with the ones described in literature, have confirmed its high accuracy results, for the differences do not exceed one percent. The expounded method is universal enough and simple in use, besides it opens the possibilities of subsequent analytical integration of differential equalizations of motion at the calculation of kinematics descriptions of grain flow. The developed method gives the opportunity to also solve the inverse task when, according to experimental measurements of porosity values of grain mixtures on the thickness of movable separated layer, it is needed to find the value of phenomenological permanent that is included in the expressions of coefficients of initial differential equalization. In this way, the adequacy of the mathematical model is improved. The use of approximation of degree considerably simplifies the method of authentication of differential equalization coefficients. In the article, the examples of grain mixture porosity calculation as well as the examples of phenomenological permanent authentication have been resulted after experimental calculations for both the variants of vibro sieves.