Mesjanizm jako ogólna idea wywodzi się z religii. Idea ta może jednak w różny sposób przekładać się na poszczególne swoje elementy składowe. Nie wszystkie te elementy muszą zawsze występować razem w poglądach danego myśliciela czy artysty, którego jesteśmy skłonni uznawać za mesjanistę. Dla przykładu, mesjanizmowi narodowemu nie musi towarzyszyć wiara religijna, a jeśli towarzyszy, nie musi być ortodoksyjna. Dlatego niektóre z koncepcji polskich mesjanistów mogą być nawet ze sobą sprzeczne pod względem szczegółowych konsekwencji, wydobywanych z ogólnej idei mesjanizmu. Dla zobrazowania wielości stanowisk zostają przypomniane i skomentowane wybrane koncepcje „mesjanizmu poetów” (A. Mickiewicz, J. Słowacki, Z. Krasiński, C. Norwid) i „mesjanizmu filozofów” (J. Hoene-Wroński, A. Cieszkowski, K. Libelt, B. Trentowski).
In this article Maurycy Mochnacki’s martyrological and messianic declarations in the Preface to the Uprising of the Polish Nation in 1830–1831 are examined in the context of the martyrological discourse in the literature of the Great Emigration. Such an affirmation may appear puzzling given Mochnacki’s rejection of martyrological interpretations of Poland’s history or messianic readings of his political philosophy, let alone his reputation of being radically opposed to Adam Mickiewicz’s idea of the sacrifi cial victimhood of the Polish nation. In this study the ideological and rhetorical aspects of their statements are compared and analysed. There can be little doubt that in the Preface Mochnacki’s phrasing is steeped in patriotic pathos which seems to be at odds with the tone of his other writings. This article claims that it was a tactical move on his part: he chose the familiar martyrological loci merely as a means to enlist the readers’ support for his own pragmatic programme of restoring Poland’s independence. A general conclusion to be drawn from this apparent inconsistency is that already at that stage (The Uprising was published in Paris in 1834) the logosphere of the Great Emigration had become so dominated by the martyrological discourse that Mochnacki could not afford to ignore it.
The aim of the author is to present some messianic and prophetic ideas, which are intrinsically fused with Karl Marx’s doctrines, and which had also been expressed in Jewish mystical thought as well as in the ethical message of the Bible. Although Marx did not obtain any proper Jewish education, he was not able to reject his own being-a-Jew or his inborn spirituality together with the implicit axio-normative system of Judaism. Marxist philosophy, generally speaking, is dominated by the postulate of building a better and a more just world, and by the ethical demand of creating a new reality, from which poverty and social marginalization would be eradicated. However, such views were not new. For, it was the author of the Biblical “Book of Devarim”, who earlier emphasized the need for social solidarity. There had also been some Jewish prophets who criticized kings and priests, and Tsfat Jewish mystics who had formulated an ethically radical tikkun ha-olam postulate in the 16th century.