Hornsund, an Arctic fjord in the west coast of Spitsbergen (Svalbard), was selected as All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) site under EU 5th Framework Concerted Action BIOMARE (2000–2002), especially due to its pristine, undisturbed natural character. On the base of large material (89 stations located throughout the fjord and 129 Van Veen grab samples) collected during cruises of RV Oceania in July in 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 and literature search a comprehensive list of species recorded within Hornsund area, on the soft bottom with depth range of 30–250 m is provided. Over 220 species were identified including 93 species of Polychaeta, 62 species of Mollusca and 58 species of Crustacea. Species list is supported by information on the zoogeographical status, body length and biological traits of dominant species. Need for further research on Hornsund soft bottom fauna with more sampling effort is highlighted.
Industry 4.0 will affect the complexity of supply chain networks. It will be necessary to adapt more and more to the customer and respond within a time interval that is willing to accept the product waiting. From these considerations, there is a need for a different way of managing the supply chain. The traditional concept of supply chain as a linear system, which allows optimizing individual subsystems, thus obtaining an optimized supply chain, is not enough. The article deals with the issue of supply chain management reflecting demand behaviour using the methodology Demand Driven MRP system. The aim of the publication is to extend the knowledge base in the area of demand-driven supply logistics in the
This study investigates cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the plant leaves of juglans regia (walnut) and cydonia oblanga (quince) trees related to traffic emissions on the highway roadside. The plant leaf samples were collected from 20 sites on the D-100 Highway roadside and washed with deionized water before analyzed. Determination of Cd was carried out using an inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometer after microwave digestion of the samples. Cd concentration on the plant leaves was found to be between 0.04–0.11 mg/kg. In order to determine the traffic-based emissions, vehicles were counted and an emission inventory was prepared. 0.18 tons of Cd was found to be delivered into the atmosphere every day. Cd accumulation depends on traffic density because there were no residential area and industrial plants. The distribution of Cd accumulation caused by traffic emissions was mapped by using a geographic information system (GIS). The maps showed that the Cd accumulation was high in the areas near the highway and then gradually decreased by moving away from the highway.
Scheuchzeria palustris is a species regarded as an arctic-boreal relic and critically en-dangered. The study was conducted on one of the recent stands in the Łódź region, in the Czarny Ług Reserve, located near Wolbórz. The primary aim of the study was to know the amount of this species and the associated species. Quantitative, morphological and floristic features were ana-lysed. In the study area occurred about 150 specimens per 1 m2. Among the associated species were found species representing classes: Scheuchzerio-Caricetea Nigrae and Oxycocco-Sphagnetea. Eriopho-prum angustifolium was dominant among the first class species (60% coverage), while Andromeda polifolia and Oxycoccus palustris from the second class. From here it can be assumed that the succession will be in the direction of Scheuchzerio-Caricetea Nigrae. However, high water levels may inhibit this process. Specific biotic and abiotic conditions allow for the survival of this spe-cies. This is visible, among other things, in the mosaic structure of the studied stand.
This article presents data on the anthropogenic air emissions of selected substances (CO2, SO2, total suspended particles (TSP), dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), Pb and Cd) subject to reporting under the Climate Convention (UNFCCC) or the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE CLRTAP). It also presents the national emissions of these substances in 2014 by the major source categories and defines the share of metal production in these emissions. Analysis is based on national emission inventory reports. Most important source of air emission in case of CO2 and SO2 is 1.A.1 Energy industries category. TSP and PCDD/F are emitted mainly from fuel combustion in small sources (i.a. households). Emission of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) is connected mostly with 1.A.2. Manufacturing industries and construction category. Metallurgy is significant source of emission only for lead and cadmium from among all considered substances. The shares of particular sectors in the national emissions of given pollutants are important, in view of the possible reduction measures and the determination in which industries they could bring about tangible results.
The paper investigates the air quality in the urban area of Warsaw, Poland. Calculations are carried out using the emissions and meteorological data from the year 2012. The modeling tool is the regional CALMET/CALPUFF system, which is used to link the emission sources with the distributions of the annual mean concentrations. Several types of polluting species that characterize the urban atmospheric environment, like PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, Pb, B(a)P, are included in the analysis. The goal of the analysis is to identify the most polluted districts and polluting compounds there, to check where the concentration limits of particular pollutants are exceeded. Then, emission sources (or emission categories) which are mainly responsible for violation of air quality standards and increase the adverse health effects, are identified. The modeling results show how the major emission sources – the energy sector, industry, traffic and the municipal sector – relate to the concentrations calculated in receptor points, including the contribution of the transboundary inflow. The results allow to identify districts where the concentration limits are exceeded and action plans are needed. A quantitative source apportionment shows the emission sources which are mainly responsible for the violation of air quality standards. It is shown that the road transport and the municipal sector are the emission classes which substantially affect air quality in Warsaw. Also transboundary inflow contributes highly to concentrations of some pollutants. The results presented can be of use in analyzing emission reduction policies for the city, as a part of an integrated modeling system.
The main objective of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory – Revised (K -MPAI -R, Kenny, 2009) modified as the Kenny Performance Anxiety Inventory (K -PAI) for a general population of individuals with experience in public performance in fields other than music. Another aim was to test the factor structure of K -PAI on a Polish sample. We analysed the relationship between the scores on K -PAI and general anxiety, depression, attentional control, the scores on the Behavioural Inhibition Scale (BIS) and the Behavioural Activation Scale (BAS) and reward susceptibility. Participants (N = 586) completed the questionnaires in a wider online study. The scores on K -PAI revealed a moderate to strong positive association with different measures of anxiety, trait -anxiety in particular, and negative associations with attentional control and susceptibility to reward. K -PAI scores were strongly associated with depression, but displayed no relationship with the BAS or any of its sub -dimensions. These results generally replicated those obtained on the K -MPAI -R with Australian and Peruvian musicians, indicating the cross -cultural validity of the K -MPAI -R and K -PAI. It is suggested that performance anxiety develops on the basis of the biological predispositions and early negative experiences in performance contexts.
The supply chain of spare parts is the intersection between the supply chain, the after-sales and the maintenance services. Some authors have tried to define improvement paths in terms of models to satisfy the performance criteria. In addition, other authors are directed towards the integration of risk management in the demand forecasting and the stock management (performance evaluation) through probabilistic models. Among these models, the probabilistic graphical models are the most used, for example, Bayesian networks and petri nets. Performance evaluation is done through performance indicators. To measure the appreciation of the supply of the spare parts stock, this paper focuses on the performance evaluation of the system by petri nets. This evaluation will be done through an analytical study. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the performance of the system by proposed indicators. First, we present a literature review on Petri nets which is the essential tool in our modeling. Secondly, we present in the third section the analytical study of the model based on bath deterministic and stochastic petri networks. Finally, we present an analysis of the proposed model compared to the existing ones.
The article presents results of an input-output data inventory and life cycle assessment (LCA) for individual wastewater treatment plants (IWWTPs), considering their whole life cycle, including the stage of construction, use and end-of-life. IWWTPs located in the area of a medium-sized town in Poland, were assessed from a systemic perspective. The research was conducted basing on actual data concerning performance of 304 individual wastewater treatment plants in Żory. Environmental assessment was conducted with ReCiPe and TRACI methods. Greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, eutrophication, fossil fuel and metal depletion were calculated. The LCA was conducted basing on ISO 14040 standard with SimaPro 8 software and Ecoinvent 3 database. The system boundary ranged from cradle to grave. It was shown that, at the construction stage, GHG emission depends on the amount of used cement, polyethylene, concrete, PVC and polypropylene. At the use stage, the GHG emission is determined by the sewage treatment technology and application of a bio-reactor in IWWTPs. At the construction stage, the fossil fuel depletion is determined by the amount of used polyethylene, PVC, cement, polypropylene and concrete; while the metal depletion is determined by the amount of used stainless steel, copper and cast iron. Data inventory and LCA of IWWTPs are presented for the ﬁrst time. Conclusions of the work may support decisions taken by local governments concerning wastewater management in their area and promote and support solutions of high ecological standards.
Results of life cycle inventory (LCI) and life cycle assessment (LCA) for septic tanks collecting domestic sewage were presented. The study included the whole life cycle: construction, use and end-of-life stages of septic tanks. The analyses were conducted basing on actual data concerning performance of 793 septic tanks in Żory. Environmental impact assessment of the life cycle of septic tanks was conducted with TRACi and ReCiPe methods. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, eutrophication, fossil fuel depletion and metal depletion indicators were calculated and determinants of LCA of septic tanks were analysed. The system boundary was from cradle to grave. It was concluded that at the construction stage, GHG emission and fossil fuel depletion indicators are determined by the amount of concrete, steel, polyester resin, polyethylene, cast iron and PCV. At the use stage, GHG emission is determined by the amount and type of electricity used to treat sewage in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Untreated wastewater, introduced into the environment (leaking tanks and users discharging sewage), is a determinant of inﬂ uence on eutrophication. Life cycle inventory and environmental assessment of septic tanks with life cycle perspective are presented in the literature for the ﬁ rst time. The results highlight the importance of including each stage in the environmental assessment of elements of the urban wastewater system.
In this article, we review the research state of the bullwhip effect in supply chains with stochastic lead times. We analyze problems arising in a supply chain when lead times are not deterministic. Using real data from a supply chain, we confirm that lead times are stochastic and can be modeled by a sequence of independent identically distributed random variables. This underlines the need to further study supply chains with stochastic lead times and model the behavior of such chains.