Changes that take place in a job environment, job structure, job perception, as well as in the sphere of features, meanings and values ascribed to work are constituents of changes in the contemporary world, particularly of the development of the free market economy. It is difficult to overestimate the significance of these changes for the quality of career construction, its development and modification of its individualized paths. The contemporary study of career requires taking into account multicontextual changes in the world of work, that make employees face new challenges. In the economy based on knowledge, which in turn determines the orientation of the modern society to knowledge, the career development of its members and investing in their „portfolio” become the key elements of such an economy. The development of a career “portfolio” means the investment and renewal of the career capital on the path of proactivity.
The transition to a zero-carbon economy is the inclusive growth story of the twenty-first century. It needs to be managed with effective and cohesive policies, whilst recognizing that sustainable development, inclusive growth and climate action are interwoven and mutually supportive.
Karl Marx (and also Friedrich Engels, by the way) was – contrary to his own opinion – an author of several utopias which played a role in the 20th century. The question (which is of both historical-philosophical and historical-empirical character) therefore arises how important this role was. The author focuses on the characteristics of Marxian utopias, and specifically – on their axiological content and current relevance. According to the author, Marx’s utopias can be a convenient starting point for searching for various projects (political, economic, technological etc.) necessary to cope with global challenges that mankind faces in our time. The author is also considering Marx’s motives for a critical approach to utopias and points to those of them which in his opinion should be accepted, while distinguishing them from others which should be rejected.
The Finns built a goal-oriented policy of lifelong guidance, which promotes not only the climate of constant learning, but also the development of knowledge and skills. The Finnish success is related to the changes in the contemporary world. It relies on the perfect recognition of skills and competences, which are needed in society of the future due to the different working conditions, which students and employees of XXI century have to face.
The pace of climate change observed since the beginning of the industrial era has prompted scientists to seriously consider whether human activity is to blame for global warming. On the geological timescale, however, climate change is certainly nothing new or exceptional – as is clear when one looks at the record of plant and animal fossils.
Arctic glaciers respond quickly to climatic conditions, which is why they play a special role as climate warming indicators. Studying them in the long term is the key to understanding future global environmental changes.
The purpose of this article is to identify and assess environmental risks that may have the greatest impact on the future of humanity. They were divided into two basic groups, i.e. for natural processes and resources. In addition, climate change is described as different group. The authors decided, that a holistic approach to this issue is more desirable than dividing it into two above-mentioned groups. The comparison of various threats was possible due to the application of identical assessment criteria, such as: the harmfulness, rate of spread, scope and moment of occurrence of a given group of threats. Each of the listed criteria has been evaluated on a five-point scale, where 1 has the smallest and 5 the largest impact force. The obtained results show the leading importance of natural processes in maintaining the existing Earth system. In addition, the authors point to a greater risk of problems related to renewable resources than non-renewable one. As a result, it can be assumed that the current degradation of natural processes and excessive use of resources is likely to lead to the risk of global disasters.
In this paper, the analysis of carbon footprint values for children’s footwear was conducted. This group of products is characterized by similar small mass and diversity in the used materials. The carbon footprint is an environmental indicator, which is used to measure the total sets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere caused by a product throughout its entire lifecycle. The complexity of carbon footprint calculation methodology is caused by multistage production process. The probability of emission greenhouse gases exists at each of these stages. Moreover, a large variety of footwear materials – both synthetic and natural, give the possibility of the emission of a lot of waste, sewage and gases, which can be dangerous to the environment. The diversity of materials could be the source of problems with the description of their origins, which make carbon footprint calculations difficult, especially in cases of complex supply chains. In this paper, with use of life cycle assessment, the carbon footprint was calculated for 4 children’s footwear types (one with an open upper and three with full uppers). The life cycles of the product were divided into 8 stages: raw materials extraction (stage 1), production of input materials (stage 2), footwear components manufacture (stage 3), footwear manufacture (stage 4), primary packaging manufacture (stage 5), footwear distribution to customers (stage 6), use phase (stage 7) and product’s end of life (stage 8). On these grounds, it was possible to point out the life cycle stages, where the optimization activities can be implemented in order to reduce greenhouse gases emissions. The obtained results showed that the most intensive corrective actions should be focused on the following stages: 3 (the higher emissivity), 4 and 8.
The paper proposes a list of five „stylized facts”, regarded as the main trends with respect to the development of the global economy in the 20th c. The author’s main purpose is to answer the question whether, in the light of the contemporary growth theory and demographic forecasts, these trends are likely to continue unchanged also in the 21st c. Taking into account this theory and those forecasts, the paper offers forecasts of the average GDP per capita for both the countries of the Technology Frontier Area (TFA) and the catching-up countries. By these forecasts, the strong divergence trend of the last two centuries will be replaced by a strong convergence trend during the 21st c. Moreover, the global rate of growth of the per capita GDP will continue to be high in the first half of the current century, but strongly declining in the second half.
The locally resonant sonic material (LRSM) is an artificial metamaterial that can block underwater sound. The low-frequency insulation performance of LRSM can be enhanced by coupling local resonance and Bragg scattering effects. However, such method is hard to be experimentally proven as the best optimizing method. Hence, this paper proposes a statistical optimization method, which first finds a group of optimal solutions of an object function by utilizing genetic algorithm multiple times, and then analyzes the distribution of the fitness and the Euclidean distance of the obtained solutions, in order to verify whether the result is the global optimum. By using this method, we obtain the global optimal solution of the low-frequency insulation of LRSM. By varying parameters of the optimum, it can be found that the optimized insulation performance of the LRSM is contributed by the coupling of local resonance with Bragg scattering effect, as well as a distinct impedance mismatch between the matrix of LRSM and the surrounding water. This indicates coupling different effects with impedance mismatches is the best method to enhance the low-frequency insulation performance of LRSM.
This article addresses the issue of the role of regions, big cities and urban areas in the socio-economic and spatial development trends in the EU as well Poland shaped through – and in connection with the process of globalization and functioning of the Common Market. The analysis of the situation and trends is prepared on the basis of the recent reports and data presented by the EC and OECD and – in case of Poland – Ministry of Investment and Economic Development as well Main Statistical Offi ce. Against this background with the reference to other research work published recently and his own experience the Author formulates a number of proposals for modification of territorially sensitive socio-economic policy in Poland (at national, regional as well urban level).
The Author discusses the present state of Polish geography against the background of the traditional position, and the rapid development taking place after the Second World War. The introduction of new methods and new directions, as well as new organization are considered to have been reflected in the rising international position of Polish geography. Further topics here include the relationship between physical and human geography, the growing de facto separation of these two branches, and the development of several independent sciences rooted in geography but now existing apart from it (like geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, etc. on the physical geography side, with the element of the environment as a subject of study). On the other hand, social economic geography examines the effects of human activity in the environment, thereby synthesizing spatial management and bridging the gap between the earth sciences, the economy and the social sciences. The degradation of environmental resources, explosion of the human population and climate change have all forced geography (and other sciences) to head in the global direction, as well as towards interdisciplinary cooperation, likewise on the level of the world as a whole. If we are to meet the challenges this all entails, we will need to think about creating interdisciplinary problem teams, as well as activating existing organisational structures in science (notably the geographical sciences), with full benefit taken from research centres that run studies on differing spatial scales, in conjunction with international global programmes like the Future Earth. The geography of the future should not be a closed science, but should draw on the knowledge of scholars of various specialisations, seeking environmental solutions that require intervention on both the global and regional scales. Polish geography should participate in this activity, inter alia as part of Future Earth, as a new venture. It can also be regarded as our task to ensure that society is aware of all the above issues.
The contemporary warfare seems to have great influence on the way social sciences position themselves within the socio-political contexts of today. This is being implemented in many cases by the geopolitical context of 9/11 and the fall of former centers of power (end of the Cold War). Cultural anthropology, which shared a similar dilemma in the formative period of its own history provides us today with one of the most controversial examples in this matter. The program initiated by US Army back in 2006 called Human Terrain System started a wide spread debate on ethical issues regarding doing ethnographic fieldwork in a militarized landscape. HTS became thus a field of intellectual and political polemics between certain groups of researches. The academic and political debate on HTS seems to be put in a post-colonial context as a new form of mixing of science and ideology. This paper tackles the problem of emergence of a new type of anthropological understanding of the cultural other and as well its own methods and ethical standards in a situation, where crisis seems to be a permanent state of the discipline and the world its trying to describe.
Recent works of the authors, concerning the future of urban regions, are synthesised in the paper. Three methodological paths – focused on exploring and creating the future of urban regions – are the backbone of the presented work. Within the fi rst path, creation of regional future by applying the concept of intellectual and strategic challenges is recommended. Second path introduces a new perspective for the future, based upon vehicles. A new philosophy of urban and regional growth emerges here. Third path is a new approach towards creation of regional specialisations in a contemporary notion of technological and creative economy.
In recent years, with the rapid development of digital components, digital electronic computers, especially microprocessors, digital controllers have replaced analog controllers on many occasions. The application of digital controller makes the performance analysis of impulsive system more and more important. This paper considers global exponential stability (GES) of impulsive delayed nonlinear hybrid differential systems (IDNHDS).Through the application of the Lyapunov method and the Razumikhin technique, a series of uncomplicated and useful guiding principles have been obtained. The results of a numerical simulation are presented to demonstrate that the method is correct and effective.
The article discusses the issues of values and social responsibility of universities. On the one hand, the foundations of functioning of universities, which are created by research and education and the role of universities in formation, are recalled. On the other hand, it was reminded that the heart of universities, their DNA, are academic values, defined primarily in the Magna Charta Universitatum, but also in many other documents, such as the Code of Values of the Jagiellonian University. Hence, universities are increasingly often referred to not only as universities of knowledge, but also as universities of wisdom. Together, they are the basis for the social responsibility of universities. However, they alone are not enough for this social responsibility to materialise. Appropriate behaviour and actions are essential. Because knowledge alone is not everything. Such actions are always necessary, but especially when we find ourselves, as a country, humanity and a planet, in a crisis situation related to the climate disaster, which we are already partially experiencing. After the presentation of the most important current facts related to the climate and environmental crisis, the tasks to be undertaken urgently in this context by universities were presented, from broadly understood education, through convincing politicians to ambitious and quick actions, to intensive work on innovative solutions that can contribute to reducing threats brought by the climate and environmental crisis, pointing out, among others, the initiatives proposed by the newly created network of universities U7.