The major aim of the research is to analyse the type and complexity of emotions which adolescent musicians experience before giving a solo music performance. Another aim is to explore the function of these emotions for performance quality. Just before a school concert, students filled out The UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL). Right after the performance, both the performing students and competent referees used The Performance Evaluation Scale. The results show that musicians’ pre -performance emotional state is dominated by ambivalent emotions of hope and sadness, as well as joy and anxiety. As a result of a cluster analysis, six clusters were obtained which defined emotional states before the performance: high music performance anxiety, moderate music performance anxiety, calm, mixed emotions, joy with background fatigue, and excitement. The findings show the functional significance of positive emotions and mixed emotions for performance quality.
The major underlying principle of the present paper is that, in opposition to the viewpoint of emotions as discrete entities, emotions are represented as clusters in conceptual space. The graded structure and fuzzy boundaries inherent in the prototype-periphery nature of these clusters dictate that the meaning of a specific emotion is governed by both inter- and intra-cluster relationships and their interactions. In addition to these relationships and interactions the paper examines both external and internal affects to compare and contrast the FEAR, COMPASSION, LOVE/JOY, and PRIDE clusters in British English and Polish. The three specific methods employed to analyze these are the GRID instrument, an online emotions sorting task, and a corpus-based cognitive linguistic methodology.
One of the major subjects that construct the emotional right-wing script is the history of the postwar Polish independence Underground and the related present-day politics and historical policy. The analysis of the right-wing press enables the distinction of four temporal categories to which specific toposes can be assigned as well as the moulded emotional elements: 1) the period of struggle, 2) the period of imprisonment and possible death, 3) the period of the Third Republic [of Poland], and 4) the period from the victory of the Law and Justice party (PiS) in the parliamentary elections until the present.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and temperament. It was assumed that the two main components of EI – experiential and strategic – have different temperament correlates. One hundred and four Polish university students aged 19 to 26 completed self-descriptive questionnaires of temperament and emotional intelligence. The results confirmed that the relationship with temperament depends on the examined component of EI. Acceptance of emotions (which is a subcomponent of experiential EI) only correlated with two temperamental traits – activity and briskness. Many more dependencies were found in relation to strategic EI. Endurance, strength of inhibition, sensory sensitivity and perseveration turned out to be significant predictors of emotional control, which jointly explained 44% of the variance in results, while perseveration and sensory sensitivity explained 28% of the variance in results on the understanding emotions scale. Based on the results obtained, it can be assumed that the configuration of temperament traits that determines a high capacity for processing stimulation is most conductive to strategic EI. Other propitious traits include those that determine the speed of neural processes, flexibility and ease of adaptation to changing conditions as well as a low sensitivity threshold to sensory stimulus.
This study presents the consequences of incidental affect when performing a letter search in a complex visual field. Participants were exposed to two superficially unrelated tasks in succession. First, they had to read and remember as much as possible from among 135 emotional words chosen to enable manipulation of two affective factors, valence and origin of emotional state, in a 3x3 factorial design with alignment of other variables, such as arousal, concreteness, frequency of appearance and length. The second task was based on a visual search paradigm. Participants viewed a display of six letters and responded if at least one of two target letters was present. Analysis of reaction latencies for correct responses showed that valence of the words read in the first task had no effect on visual search effectiveness. The origin of the affective state elicited by the words in the first task did influence response latencies: latencies were longer when the first task involved reading words eliciting emotions of automatic origin rather than words eliciting emotions of reflective origin. This study provides further evidence that valence effects found in earlier studies could be accounted for by other dimensions, especially origin of emotional state.
Cheerleading is a new sport, practiced in 110 nations; since 2016 enjoys provisional Olympic status. Its leaders claim that it is a “happy” sport, but research on its psychological effects is lacking. In this field-study we examined core-affect, positive-affect, and negative-affect in 65 cheerleaders before, during, after, and one-hour after a cheerleading training. Core-affect was more positive during and immediately after training, but it tapered off one hour following the training when feeling states were still more positive than at baseline. Negative-affect declined linearly from baseline to one-hour following training when it became significantly lower than its previous values. Positive-affect showed quadratic dynamics, in parallel with arousal, being higher during and immediately after training than during baseline, or one-hour after training. These results demonstrate for the first time that cheerleading is a “happy” sport, which apart from the skill-development also yields positive psychological emotions both during and after training.
This paper aims to open the discussion about historian’s emotions during the research process that has mostly been covered up. It does not pretend to be a thorough account of the topic but a modest essay that might encourage other researcher to reflect on their experiences. Firstly, we briefly describe the current situation in a few neighboring disciplines. Secondly, we explain how we understand emotions and use the terms emotion, feeling and sentiment. Thirdly, we discuss the reasons why most historians keep silent about their feelings. Fourthly, with two examples, we illustrate how historians have written about their emotions. Fifthly, we present a model of emotional phases of research by the Danish social psychologist Steinar Kvale and evaluate its relevance to historical research. Then we look at the causes and/or objects of feelings of students or beginning scholars in cultural history. Finally, we suggest some ways we historians could make our scholarly community emotionally a more supportive one. It might be good to remember that our discussion concerns primarily the Finnish academic world, and the situation in other countries might be slightly different.
The domain of motion events is widely used to metaphorically describe abstract concepts, particularly emotional states. Why motion events are effective for describing abstract concepts is the question that this article intends to answer. In the literature of the field, several reasons have been suggested to be behind the suitability of motion events for describing these concepts, such as high concreteness of motion events, their high imageability, and the ability of comprehender to simultaneously imagine components of motion events. This article suggests that motion events are particularly effective for metaphorical description of those domains which have the feature of dynamic change over a period of time. This is particularly the case with emotional states. Since changes in emotions take place throughout a period of time, they could best be described by motion events which have the same feature. In other words, the continuous change in emotions is understood in terms of continuous change in the location of a moving object in the 3D space. Based on the arguments of embodied theories of cognition, it would be no surprise to see the involvement of similar areas of the brain in understanding emotions and motions.
The paper aims to propose a method of historical investigation of emotions in the past. The author rethinks the phenomenon of empathy as a potential research tool for grasping the emotions of past events’ agents. He provides a psychology-based defi nition and an overview of historiographic traditions associated with empathy. He discusses limitations regarding validity (accuracy) and intersubjective control of empathy. Subsequently, the author proposes how to overcome these limitations.
This study discusses the cross-cultural re-conceptualization of the slogan ‘I’m lovin’ it’, popularized in Poland by a global fast-food restaurant chain, which occurs in the inter-linguistic transfer between English and Polish. The analytical framework for the study is provided by Cultural Linguistics and the Re-conceptualization and Approximation Theory. The analysis is based on proposals submitted by 45 translators asked to come up with a Polish equivalent of the slogan. The results indicate that because the semantic networks for the meaning of love do not overlap between English and Polish perfectly, attempts at the cross-cultural transfer of the slogan can be approached only as more or less accurate approximations of the original meaning constructed according to culture-specific norms, expectations, and attitudes.
Drawing on the stressor–emotion model, the study examines the mechanisms of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) development: specifically (1) the direct effect of job stressor (bullying at work); (2) the moderation effect of the Dark Triad (DT) and job control (JC); and (3) the moderated moderation effect (DT x JC) on the job stressor–CWB link. Data were collected among 763 white- and blue-collar workers. The hypotheses were tested by means of the PROCESS method. As expected in the hypotheses, high job stressor was directly related to high CWB, and DT moderated (increased) the link. JC also moderated the job stressor–CWB link, but the moderation effect was in a direction opposite to expectations. High job control participants were more likely to report CWB when they reported a high level of the stressors. The moderated moderation effect was supported. JC increases the moderation effect of DT on the job stressor–CWB link. The highest level of CWB was observed when DT and JC were high. The findings provide further insight into processes leading to the development of CWB.
Animals kept outside their natural environment often suffer from boredom. They don’t hunt or have a chance to conduct their mating rituals, and their natural tendency for physical activity is limited by space. These deficiencies affect their psychological well-being. But when it comes to dogs, we can help them by exploiting their excellent sense of smell.
The author analyses problems of disease, dying, and death addressed in a play by Margaret Edson entitled Wit. Special attention is paid to the structure of meta-theatre and the function of wit in the play. The author investigates limitations of reason in the approach adopted by the doctors who take care of Vivian Bearing, and who subject her to an excruciating experiment in order to achieve a potential research success. She also discusses the protagonist’s attitude to literary works, dealing with her own disease, to other people and to God. This offers an opportunity to ruminate on the exact meaning of irretrievable loss involved in suffering. She also concentrates on the attitude of the nurse who – thanks to her emotional intelligence and empathy – accompanies Vivian on her way to death.
The article presents Peter F. Strawson’s remarks on the free will debate, which he has presented in the essay ‘Freedom and Resentment’. Strawson avoids taking a stance on the question whether the thesis of determinism is correct. Instead he shows the essential difficulties and far reaching consequences of acknowledging this thesis. He recognizes the inseparable connection between freedom and responsibility in the philosophy after Kant. He consequently questions whether we really understand what it would mean to claim that determinism is true. He focuses on what he calls ‘reactiv attitudes’ triggered by the way in which other people behave toward us. Their behavior evokes emotional reaction in us – gratitude, respect, curiosity, but also distrust, resentment, disappointment. Those emotional responses are not purely subjective and they underlie moral judgments and complicated interpersonal relations. We suspend our reactive attitudes towards animals, very small children or people that we think are mentally ill. Instead we adopt objective (psychiatric, scientific) attitudes towards them. But to acknowledge the thesis of determinism implicates that we should treat all people this way. The paper is not so much concerned with an analysis of advantages and weak points of Strawson’s version of compatibilism, but focuses instead on the originality of his contribution to the debate on free will and on his brilliant treatment of reactive attitudes.
Studies based on the most common diagnostic categories do not bring conclusive results concerning the overlapping and distinctive features of anxiety and depression, especially in the areas of attentional functioning, structure of affect, and cognitive emotion regulation. However, a new typology has been proposed which treats anxiety and depression as personality types (Fajkowska, 2013). These types – arousal and apprehension anxiety as well as valence and anhedonic depression – are constructed based on two criteria: specific structure and functions (reactive or regulative). The present paper critically examines the empirical evidence related to this approach. The data mostly confirmed the prediction that the similarities and differences in attentional and affective functioning among the anxiety and depression types would be related to their shared and specific structural and functional characteristics. The new typology turned out to be suitable for integrating the existing research findings by relating them to the structure and functions of anxiety and depression. As a result, it is useful in explaining some of the inconsistencies in literature, as it allows to identify the overlapping and distinctive features of the anxiety and depression types. It also helps to understand the mechanisms contributing to the development and maintenance of anxiety and depression, which might be useful in diagnosis and treatment. However, even though Fajkowska’s approach is an important contribution to the understanding of anxiety and depression, it is not exhaustive. Its limitations are discussed, along with proposed modifications of the theory, as well as further research directions.
The human voice is one of the basic means of communication, thanks to which one also can easily convey the emotional state. This paper presents experiments on emotion recognition in human speech based on the fundamental frequency. AGH Emotional Speech Corpus was used. This database consists of audio samples of seven emotions acted by 12 different speakers (6 female and 6 male). We explored phrases of all the emotions – all together and in various combinations. Fast Fourier Transformation and magnitude spectrum analysis were applied to extract the fundamental tone out of the speech audio samples. After extraction of several statistical features of the fundamental frequency, we studied if they carry information on the emotional state of the speaker applying different AI methods. Analysis of the outcome data was conducted with classifiers: K-Nearest Neighbours with local induction, Random Forest, Bagging, JRip, and Random Subspace Method from algorithms collection for data mining WEKA. The results prove that the fundamental frequency is a prospective choice for further experiments.
The term positive psychology has recently entered the field of Second Language Acquisition. The article explains the meaning of the term, presents the definitions of positive psychology, its objectives and history. The key part of the article demonstrates the importance of positive psychology in the second language acquisition presenting many connections between the two fields. The author recommends that positive education is introduced in every school and every foreign language classroom.
The study of the relationship “the natural qualities of water – the naturally built environment – the psycho- emotional conditions of human beings” from the perspective of architectural and landscape organization is essential nowadays. By investigating modern monuments we identified the methods of landscaping and composition planning to create the appropriate environment to emotionally impact the persons dealing with grief, sadness and loss. The conducted analysis of modern memorials allowed us to explore the role of water as an important compositional element in the architectural and landscape organization of monument sites. We also identified different methods of modeling water and how they affect related emotional impressions in creating the urban social environment that would preserve the historical and cultural memory from generation to generation.