This paper presents the study of the impact of vibration induced by the movement of the railway rolling stock on the Forum Gdańsk structure. This object is currently under construction and is located over the railway tracks in the vicinity of the Gdańsk Główny and Gdańsk Śródmieście railway stations. The analysis covers the influence of vibrations on the structure itself and on the people within. The in situ measurements on existing parts of the structure allow us to determine environmental excitations used for validation and verification of the derived FEM model. The numerical calculations made the estimates of the vibration amplitudes propagating throughout the whole structure possible.
In the examined area three types of waters have been recorded: Surface Waters of winter modification, Warm Deep Waters and East Bransfield Strait Waters. Geographical location of Scotia Front is similar to that observed in previous years. The dynamics of waters within the examined area is high. It is reflected not only in physical and chemical parameters but also in the distribution of chlorophyll α. In the Front its total amount in a water column is greater than outside.
The Baltic is a unique brakish sea. Its moderate salinity is the result of the fresh river water input and non-periodic inflows of salty, oxygenated waters from the North Sea. However, the balance continually fluctuates. What impact does that have on the sea?
The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.
In the experiment, bubbles were generated from two brass nozzles with inner diameters of 1.1 mm. They were submerged in the glass tank filled with distilled water. There have been measured the air pressure fluctuations and the signal from the laser-phototransistor sensor. For analysis of the pressure signal the correlation (the normalized cross - correlation exponent) and non-linear analyses have been used. It has been shown that hydrodynamic interactions between bubbles can lead to bubble departure synchronization. In this case the bubble departures become periodic. The results of calculation of correlation dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent confirm that hydrodynamic bubble interactions observed for 4 mm spacing between nozzels cause the periodic bubble departures from two neighbouring nozzles.
The paper describes the design and multibody dynamic analysis of a mechanically interconnected suspension, as applied to a small off-road vehicle. Interconnected suspensions use some sort of connection between the axles of a vehicle in order improve ride quality or vehicle handling. In principle, the connection may be hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical, but for installation in a typical passenger car, a mechanical connection would likely be impractical due to weight and complexity. In this paper, the vehicle in question is the University of Windsor SAE Baja off-road competition vehicle, and novel mechanical design is proposed. A multibody dynamic analysis is performed on the proposed design using the EoM open source multibody software developed by theUniversity ofWindsorVehicle Dynamics and Control research group in order to assess any potential performance improvements.
The object of the present study is to investigate the influence of damping uncertainty and statistical correlation on the dynamic response of structures with random damping parameters in the neighbourhood of a resonant frequency. A Non-Linear Statistical model (NLSM) is successfully demonstrated to predict the probabilistic response of an industrial building structure with correlated random damping. A practical computational technique to generate first and second-order sensitivity derivatives is presented and the validity of the predicted statistical moments is checked by traditional Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the NLSM to estimate uncertainty propagation in structural dynamics. In addition, it is demonstrated that the uncertainty in damping indeed influences the system response with the effects being more pronounced for lightly damped structures, higher variability and higher statistical correlation of damping parameters.
This study aims to design a novel air cleaning facility which conforms to the current situation in China, and moreover can satisfy our demand on air purification under the condition of poor air quality, as well as discuss the development means of a prototype product. Air conditions in the operating room of a hospital were measured as the research subject of this study. First, a suitable turbulence model and boundary conditions were selected and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software was used to simulate indoor air distribution. The analysis and comparison of the simulation results suggested that increasing the area of air supply outlets and the number of return air inlets would not only increase the area of unidirectional flow region in main flow region, but also avoid an indoor vortex and turbulivity of the operating area. Based on the summary of heat and humidity management methods, the system operation mode and relevant parameter technologies as well as the characteristics of the thermal-humidity load of the operating room were analyzed and compiled. According to the load value and parameters of indoor design obtained after our calculations, the airflow distribution of purifying the air-conditioning system in a clean operating room was designed and checked. The research results suggested that the application of a secondary return air system in the summer could reduce energy consumption and be consistent with the concept of primary humidity control. This study analyzed the feasibility and energy conservation properties of cleaning air-conditioning technology in operating rooms, proposed some solutions to the problem, and performed a feasible simulation, which provides a reference for practical engineering.
Sterowanie procesów technologicznych wzbogacania węgla odbywa się w obecności licznych zakłóceń. Zatem jednym z podstawowych zadań układów regulacji procesów wzbogacania węgla jest stabilizacja parametrów jakościowych na zadanym poziomie. Istotnym problemem jest wybór regulatora odpornego na różnorodne zakłócenia. Niemniej ważnym zagadnieniem w regulacji procesu jest dobór nastaw regulatora. W wielu metodach doboru nastaw regulatora wykorzystuje się charakterystyki dynamiczne sterowanego procesu (model dynamiczny obiektu sterowania). Na podstawie badań stwierdzono, że dynamika wielu procesów wzbogacania węgla może być przedstawiona za pomocą modelu o właściwościach elementu inercyjnego z opóźnieniem czasowym. Identyfikacja parametrów obiektu (w tym stałej czasowej) w warunkach przemysłowych realizowana jest zwykle w trakcie normalnej eksploatacji (z oddziaływaniem zakłóceń), tym samym wyznaczone parametry modelu dynamicznego mogą się różnić od wartości rzeczywistych procesu. Układ regulacji z nastawami regulatora dobranymi na podstawie takiego modelu może nie spełniać założonych wymagań jakości regulacji. W artykule przeprowadzono analizę wpływu zmian parametrów modelu obiektu na przebieg wielkości regulowanej. Dla nastaw regulatora wyznaczonych według parametrów T i τ przeprowadzono badania na obiekcie o parametrach różniących się w pewnym zakresie. W badaniach zastosowano analizę wrażliwości. Przedstawiono analizę wrażliwości dla trzech metod doboru nastaw regulatora PI układów regulacji procesów wzbogacania węgla charakteryzujących się właściwościami dynamicznymi obiektu inercyjnego z opóźnieniem. Rozważania przeprowadzono dla różnych parametrów obiektu, na podstawie odpowiedzi układu regulacji dla stałej wartości wielkości zadanej. W podsumowaniu dokonano oceny rozpatrywanych metod doboru w odniesieniu do wybranych wskaźników jakości regulacji.
In the summer 1980-1981, in the Antarctic areas, in the coastal zone of Admiralty Bay (King George Island), complex measurements were carried out in order to investigate the proportion of wind gustiness in the processes generating marine spray systems and stimulating aerosol mass exchange between the sea and the atmosphere.
Based on the results of CTD measurements (in situ) made during r/v „Oceania" cruises in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas in 1986—1988 selected aspects of termohaline structure and water dynamics of chosen regions of the seas were described. Examples of space-time variations of temperature and salinity fields were presented and water masses geostrophic transport on the limits of the Norwegian Sea (upon the Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea) was estimated.
Kopalnia rudy żelaza należąca do państwowego koncernu Luossavaara – Kiirunavaara AB-LKAB posiada kilkanaście górniczych wyciągów szybowych skipowych przeznaczonych do ciągnięcia rudy żelaza. Pomimo stosowania nowoczesnych systemów zabezpieczenia ruchu tych wyciągów w myśl szwedzkich przepisów na tzw. wolnych drogach przejazdu w wieży i rząpiu muszą być stosowane urządzenia do awaryjnego hamowania naczyń. W artykule omówiono główne wymagania, jakie zgodnie ze szwedzkimi przepisami odnośnie eksploatacji górniczych wyciągów szybowych muszą spełniać tego typu urządzenia oraz przedstawiono zaproponowane rozwiązanie konstrukcyjne urządzenia hamującego górniczego wyciągu szybowego zainstalowanego w szybie B-1 kopalni Kiruna. W przedmiotowym wyciągu postanowiono zastosować cierny układ hamujący w postaci ruchomych belek odbojowych opracowany w Katedrze Transportu Linowego w Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej w Krakowie. Działanie ruchomych belek odbojowych polega na tym, że belki te, usytuowane na początku wolnych dróg przejazdu, nie tylko wyhamowują rozpędzone naczynia wyciągowe ale też – dzięki wbudowanym urządzeniom wychwytującym naczynia – spełniają funkcję podchwytów. Zabezpieczają więc naczynia przed spadkiem do szybu po zakończonym procesie hamowania. Zaletą takiego rozwiązania jest to, że elementy konstrukcyjne: trzonu prowadniczego wieży, głowicy naczynia i belek odbojowych, w momencie uderzenia naczynia w ruchome belki odbojowe przenoszą wielokrotnie mniejsze wartości sił dynamicznych w porównaniu z siłami dynamicznymi powstającymi w chwili uderzenia naczynia w nieruchome belki odbojowe. W procesie projektowania ruchomych belek odbojowych ważnym etapem jest symulacja hamowania przeprowadzana przy wykorzystaniu programu komputerowego opracowanego w KTL AGH. Program ten umożliwia zamodelowanie lin nośnych i wyrównawczych jako elementów elastycznych o właściwościach sprężysto-tłumiących. Wyniki tych symulacji zwłaszcza w zakresie uzyskanych opóźnień hamowania naczyń, wartości dróg hamowania oraz sił w wartości lin nośnych są kluczowe dla potwierdzenia poprawności przyjętej koncepcji układu awaryjnego hamowania. Urządzenia hamujące w postaci ruchomych belek odbojowych zostały wykonane przez polską firmę Coal-Bud Sp. z o.o. i obecnie są zabudowywane w wieży i rząpiu szybu B-1 kopalni Kiruna w Szwecji.
Dynamic angle measurement (DAM) plays an important role in precision machining, aerospace, military and artificial intelligence. Because of its advantages including high sensitivity, solid state and miniaturization, fibre-optic gyroscope (FOG) has great application prospects in the field of DAM. In this paper, we propose a dynamic angle metrology method based on FOG and a rotary table to evaluate the DAMaccuracy with FOG. The system synchronously collects data from the FOG and rotary table, and analyses the DAM accuracy of the FOG for different sway conditions compared with that of the angle obtained from the rotary table. An angle encoder in the rotary table provides absolute or incremental angular displacement output with angular displacement measurement accuracy of 10′′ (0:0028◦) and angular displacement repeat positioning accuracy of 3′′ (0:00083◦), and can be used as an angle reference. The experimental results show that the DAM accuracy of the FOG is better than 0:0028◦ obtained with the angular encoder, and the absolute DAM accuracy of the FOG is better than 0:0048◦ for given conditions. At the same time, for the multi-path signal synchronization problem in the metrology field, this paper proposes a signal delay measurement method combining test and algorithm procedures, which can control a delay within 25 #22;s.
The problem of optimally controlling a Wiener process until it leaves an interval (a; b) for the first time is considered in the case when the infinitesimal parameters of the process are random. When a = ��1, the exact optimal control is derived by solving the appropriate system of differential equations, whereas a very precise approximate solution in the form of a polynomial is obtained in the two-barrier case.
The problem of mathematical modelling and indication of properties of a DIP has been investigated in this paper. The aim of this work is to aggregate the knowledge on a DIP modelling using the Euler-Lagrange formalism in the presence of external forces and friction. To indicate the main properties important for simulation, model parameters identification and control system synthesis, analytical and numerical tools have been used. The investigated properties include stability of equilibrium points, a chaos of dynamics and non-minimum phase behaviour around an upper position. The presented results refer to the model of a physical (constructed) DIP system.
The aim of the paper was to develop determination methods of sedimentation characteristics using PIV image anemometry and suspension image analysis. Two methods of the investigation of sed- imentation process based on visualization techniques were developed. In the first one, using PIV method, vector fields of the velocity of settling particles are determined and then average particle velocities are calculated to establish the so called sedimentation dynamics curve. In the second one, the methods of suspension image analysis are utilized to determine the positions of the upper dis- continuity and to establish the sedimentation curve. Laboratory research on the sedimentation of agalit particles suspended in glycerine was conducted (using PIV method). Additionally, industrial research on the sedimentation of water-absorbing granular material used after the first carbonation (carbonation I) was conducted in a sugar factory (using the second method). The research consisted of photographic registration of images of the settling suspension by means of the time-lapse photog- raphy technique. A laboratory study was conducted for four values of the volume concentration of agalit particles in glycerine (0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 vol%). The research methodology, the scope of the conducted measurements and sample research results together with conclusions are presented in this paper.
The dynamics of the turning process of a thin-walled cylinder in manufacturing is modeled using flexible multibody system theory. The obtained model is time varying due to workpiece rotation and tool feed and retarded, due to repeated cutting of the same surface. Instabilities can occur due to these consecutive cuts that must be avoided in practical application because of the detrimental effects on workpiece, tool and possibly the machine. Neglecting the small feed, the stability of the resulting periodic system with time-delay can be analyzed using the semi-discretization method. The use of an adaptronic tool holder comprising actuators and sensors to improve the dynamic stability is then investigated. Different control concepts, two collocated and two model-based, are implemented in simulation and tuned to increase the domain of stable cutting. Cutting of a moderately thin workpiece exhibits instabilities mainly due to tool vibration. In this case, the stability boundary can be significantly improved. When the instability is due to workpiece vibration, the collocated concepts fail completely. Model based concepts can still obtain some improvements, but are sensitive to modeling errors in the coupling of workpiece and tool.
Main energy conversion machinery used and to be used in cogeneration systems are schematically described. Some assets of the distributed generation are pointed out and small-scale cogeneration systems designed for energy units of distributed cogeneration are described. In the small scale, turbines and bearings are a source of specific problems connected with securing stable rotor operation. Accepted has been two kinds of high speed micro-turbines of electric power about 3 KW with multistage axial and radial rotors supported on foil bearings. A concept which becomes more and more attractive takes into account a low-boiling agent, which is normally used in the thermal cycle of the micro-turbine, as the lubricating liquid in the bearings (so-called ORC based systems). Of some importance is the operation of these machines at a low noise emission level, sine being parts of the household equipment they could disturb the calm of the residents. The scope of the present article is limited to the discussion of dynamic characteristics of the selected design. The properties of the rotor combined with slide bearings (foil bearings in this particular case) were taken under investigation. A combination of this type is a certain novelty since a typical modal analysis of such objects refers to a rotor itself. Analysing the dynamic state of the "home" power plants requires qualitatively novel research tools.
This paper presents the design methodology of a small guided bomb for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. This kind of next-generation munition has recently gained a lot of attention in the military market. The bomb is planned to be equipped with inertial measurement unit and infrared seeker. The nose shape and fin optimization procedure was described shortly. Aerodynamic characteristics were calculated by means of theoretical and engineering-level methods. The flight dynamics model of the bomb was obtained and implemented in Simulink software. The numerical simulations of uncontrolled and controlled trajectories were compared. The results indicate that the usage of such a guided small munition, like the designed bomb, might improve significantly the offensive capabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.
This paper presents a robust model free controller (RMFC) for a class of uncertain continuous-time single-input single-output (SISO) minimum-phase nonaffine-in-control systems. Firstly, the existence of an unknown dynamic inversion controller that can achieve control objectives is demonstrated. Afterwards, a fast approximator is designed to estimate as best as possible this dynamic inversion controller. The proposed robust model free controller is an equivalent realization of the designed fast approximator. The perturbation theory and Tikhonov’s theorem are used to analyze the stability of the overall closed-loop system. The performance of the developped controller are verified experimentally in the position control of a pneumatic actuator system.
The nonlinear interaction of wave and non-wave modes in a gas planar flow are considered. Attention is mainly paid to the case when one sound mode is dominant and excites the counter-propagating sound mode and the entropy mode. The modes are determined by links between perturbations of pressure, density, and fluid velocity. This definition follows from the linear conservation equations in the differential form and thermodynamic equations of state. The leading order system of coupling equations for interacting modes is derived. It consists of diffusion inhomogeneous equations. The main aim of this study is to identify the principle features of the interaction and to establish individual contributions of attenuation (mechanical and thermal attenuation) in the solution to the system.
This paper researches the application of grey system theory in cost forecasting of the coal mine. The grey model (GM(1.1)) is widely used in forecasting in business and industrial systems with advantages of minimal data, a short time and little fluctuation. Also, the model fits exponentially with increasing data more precisely than other prediction techniques. However, the traditional GM(1.1) model suffers from the poor anti-interference ability. Aimed at the flaws of the conventional GM(1.1) model, this paper proposes a novel dynamic forecasting model with the theory of background value optimization and Fourier-series residual error correction based on the traditional GM(1.1) model. The new model applies the golden segmentation optimization method to optimize the background value and Fourier-series theory to extract periodic information in the grey forecasting model for correcting the residual error. In the proposed dynamic model, the newest data is gradually added while the oldest is removed from the original data sequence. To test the new model’s forecasting performance, it was applied to the prediction of unit costs in coal mining, and the results show that the prediction accuracy is improved compared with other grey forecasting models. The new model gives a MAPE & C value of 0.14% and 0.02, respectively, compared to 1.75% and 0.37 respectively for the traditional GM(1.1) model. Thus, the new GM(1.1) model proposed in this paper, with advantages of practical application and high accuracy, provides a new method for cost forecasting in coal mining, and then help decision makers to make more scientific decisions for the mining operation.
A novel dual mode logic (DML) model has a superior energy-performance compare to CMOS logic. The DML model has unique feature that allows switching between both modes of operation as per the real-time system requirements. The DML functions in two dissimilar modes (static and dynamic) of operation with its specific features, to selectively obtain either low-energy or high-performance. The sub-threshold region DML achieves minimum-energy. However, sub-threshold region consequence in performance is enormous. In this paper, the working of DML model in the moderate inversion region has been explored. The near-threshold region holds much of the energy saving of subthreshold designs, along with improved performance. Furthermore, robustness to supply voltage and sensitivity to the process temperature variations are presented. Monte carol analysis shows that the projected near-threshold region has minimum energy along with the moderate performance.
Plate fin-tube heat exchangers fins are bonded with tubes by means of brazing or by mechanical expansion of tubes. Various errors made in the process of expansion can result in formation of an air gap between tube and fin. A number of numerical simulations was carried out for symmetric section of plate fin-tube heat exchanger to study the influence of air gap on heat transfer in forced convection conditions. Different locations of air gap spanning 1/2 circumference of the tube were considered, relatively to air flow direction. Inlet velocities were a variable parameter in the simulations (1– 5 m/s). Velocity and temperature fields for cases with air gap were compared with cases without it (ideal thermal contact). For the case of gap in the back of the tube (in recirculation zone) the lowest reduction (relatively to the case without gap) of heat transfer rate was obtained (average of 11%). The worst performance was obtained for the gap in the front (reduction relatively to full thermal contact in the average of 16%).