Death is one of the key concepts present in the traditional image of the world. It means an end and is related to the process of wearing out and losing original properties. In folk anthropology, death is understood in terms of the transition from the earth world to the land of the dead, as the beginning of eternal existence. Death is one of the rites of passage and as such is correlated with other crucial moments of human existence, mainly with birth and marriage. Death is a common motif present in various genres of folklore. Researchers are interested in death predominantly because of its belief- and ritual-related image. The aim of the article is to analyse depictions of death in folk fablesand other kinds of prose works. Special emphasis is placed on the personifi cation of death as well as on its genesis and ontological status. The article also deals with the idea of death understood as both an event and a process, and it addresses death seen as a transcendental and unmaterialised force which determines a person’s life against his or her will.
The article deals with the issue of illness and suffering in Carmelite sermons of the 17th–18th centuries. The question of the origin of suffering is considered along with the role of God’s mercy and justice in the preaching discourse about the rightness and purposefulness of suffering of the human being. In addition, an analysis of the views of preachers about topics related to passing away and the attitude they advocate in the face of death is included.
The author, putting the metaphor of “a living dead” to the interpretation, tries to find the common points in the creative output of both writers i.e. Pushkin and Kharms. Both writers, belonging to extremely different literary periods and using other medium, were interested in the most important matters, among others the matter of life and death. Paradoxical metaphor of “a living dead” may imply not only a person being physically exhausted but above all a person deprived of emotions, experience and human reactions, whose fate brings nothing else but the inevitability of death. However, the matter that links both Pushkin and Kharms is the concept of “a coincidence”, which rules human fate, which is unpredictable, hard to avoid and which is a tool at hands of the providence.
Introduction: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive, anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria, widely spread in the human environment. In the last decade, the frequency and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been increasing, making this particular disease one of the most significant nosocomial infections. The aim of our study was an analysis of CDI risk factors, its course and consequences. Materials and Methods: Medical documentation of the patients treated for CDI in the University Hospital in Cracow and St Anne’s Hospital in Miechów has been analysed. The analysis focused on epidemiological data, blood parameters, comorbidities, recurrence rate, and complication rate (deaths included). As part of risk factors analysis, antibiotic use or hospitalisation in a period of 3 months before the episode of infection was considered relevant. Blood tests have been performed using routinely employed, standard methods. Results: We evaluated data of 168 people infected with C. difficile, out of which there were 102 women (61%) and 66 men (39%). Th e median age of the patients was 74 years for the entire population with 76 years for women and 71 years for male patients. One hundred thirteen people (67%) had been previously hospitalised, and 5 person was a pensioner of a nursing home. 99 people (59%) were treated with antibiotics within 3 months before the first episode of infection. An average length of the hospital stay because of CDI was 11 days. One hundred thirty persons (77%) experienced only 1 episode whereas 38 people (23%) had more than 1 episode of infection. The person with the largest number of recurrences had 9 of them. Conclusions: The development of CDI is an increasing problem in a group of hospitalised persons, particularly of an old age. The general use of beta-lactam antibiotics is the cause of a larger number of infections with C. diffi cile. Vast majority of patients have had at least one typical risk factor of CDI development.
W niniejszym tekście autorka próbuje rozwikłać paradoks ukryty w stwierdzeniu Bogusława Wolniewicza, który określał się jako „rzymski katolik niewierzący”. Najpierw zostaje ukazane, (1) w jaki sposób Wolniewicz rozumiał źródła religii, następnie (2) jak określał „minimum” chrześcijaństwa. Autorka zastanawia się, (3) czy można pogodzić jego tak wyraziste poglądy na temat eutanazji z nauką Kościoła oraz (4) etyką ewangeliczną. Na koniec (5) autorka szuka zbieżności między racjonalizmem tychicznym Wolniewicza a chrześcijaństwem.
Autorka analizuje problem choroby, umierania i śmierci podjęty w sztuce Margaret Edson Dowcip (Wit). Zwraca uwagę na konstrukcję metateatru i rolę dowcipu w sztuce. Następnie analizuje ograniczenia rozumu w podejściu opiekujących się Vivian Bearing lekarzy, skoncentrowanych na poddaniu jej morderczemu eksperymentowi i – w konsekwencji – na potencjalnym sukcesie badawczym. Autorka analizuje stosunek głównej bohaterki do utworów literackich oraz do jej własnej choroby, do innych ludzi i do Boga. Zastanawia się nad tym, co jest utratą w jej myśleniu o swoim cierpieniu. Następnie analizuje podejście pielęgniarki, która dzięki swej inteligencji emocjonalnej i empatii towarzyszy Vivian w drodze do śmierci.
The aim of this contribution is to derive a general matrix formula for the net period premium paid in more than one state. In order to avoid “overpayment” which implies higher premiums we give a formula for replacement of lump sum benefit into annuity benefits paid in more than one state. The obtained result is useful for example to more advanced models of dread disease insurances allowing period premiums paid by both healthy and ill person (e.g. not terminally yet). As an application, we supply analysis of dread disease insurances against the risk of lung cancer based on the actual data for the Lower Silesian Voivodship in Poland.