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Abstract

In two field experiments, the effect of some weed control treatments (citric acid at the rate of 10, 15 and 20%, acetic acid at the rate of 20, 30 and 40%, oxadiargyl, oxyflurfen, rice straw mulch, hand hoeing and an unweeded check control treatment) on weed growth and onion productivity in sandy soils at the Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Research Centre, Egypt was studied. The results indicated that all weeded treatments reduced the dry weight of broadleaf, grassy and total weeds as compared with the weedy check. Oxadiargyl, followed by two hand hoeing, rice straw mulch and acetic acid 40% recorded the greatest weed control efficiency. Insignificant differences were noticed between these treatments. Applying rice straw mulch increased bulb length, bulb diameter, bulb weight and onion yield by 67.52, 57.55, 45.74 and 66.22% over the weedy check, respectively. The highest values of N, P and K were obtained from rice straw mulch treatment followed by hand hoeing, oxadiargyl and acetic acid 40% treatments. It may be concluded that farmers can certainly depend on mulching or acetic acid at 40% instead of using chemical herbicides especially in organic farm systems for controlling onion weeds.
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Abstract

The report presents the results of selected heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb) removal from industrial wastewater sludge collected from metallurgy industry. As washing solutions two chelating agents were used: EDTA and citric acid. The study was focused on 0.000 (deionized water), 0.010, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100 M and 0.000, 0.050, 0.100, 0.500, 1.000 M, EDTA and citric acid solutions, respectively. Efficiency of EDTA and citric acid solutions for metal removal was studied by extraction of sludge samples with chelators. Chemical extraction of selected metals was effective for both types of solution. Optimal concentration of EDTA was 0.100M for Zn, Ni and Cd, 0.075 M for Cu and Pb. Optimal concentration of citric acid was 0.500 M for all analyzed metals
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