The problem of the migration of metal ions in the environment remains a current problem in light of the quality of obtained crops. The necessity of more and more frequent use of alternative sources of biogens in the form of waste substances, poses a threat of loading significant amounts of metals into the soil – including heavy metals harmful to human health and life. The article discusses a significant problem, namely the comparison of the results of the environmental impact of waste, obtained on the basis of legally authorized leaching tests (three-stage leaching test according to PN-EN 12457:2006), with results obtained from sequential chemical extraction (performed in 4-step chemical extraction developed and recommended in European Union countries by Communities Bureau of References – BCR). The study covered an investigation of industry fly ash from the combustion of lignite, in which Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Na, K, Li concentrations and loads were calculated. A mobility of analyzed elements was established on this basis. From heavy metals, the highest values in fraction I were noted for nickel and copper and zinc as well as nickel were noted for fraction IV . Peaking values of electrolytic conductivity in eluates was created by high concentrations of macroelements (Na and K). These tests confirm that the leaching tests used for their application in the natural environment indicate such concentrations at the highest levels that can be obtained at the first or second stage of sequential chemical extraction, and thus their proper full environmental impact is not known.
FeCl3 bearing etching solution is mainly used for etching of metals used in shadow masks, PCBs and so on. Due course of Invar alloy etching process the FeCl3 bearing etching solution get contaminated with Ni2+ which affect adversely the etching efficiency. Hence, FeCl3 bearing etching solution discarded after several cycle of operation causes an environmental and economic problem. To address both the issues the etching solution was purified through solvent extraction and remained Ni2+ recovered by wet chemical reduction using hydrazine. For optimum Fe3+ extraction efficiency, various extraction parameter were optimized and size and morphology of the recovered pure Ni powder was analyzed. The reported process is a simple process to purify and recover Ni from industry etching solution.
The report presents the results of selected heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb) removal from industrial wastewater sludge collected from metallurgy industry. As washing solutions two chelating agents were used: EDTA and citric acid. The study was focused on 0.000 (deionized water), 0.010, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100 M and 0.000, 0.050, 0.100, 0.500, 1.000 M, EDTA and citric acid solutions, respectively. Efficiency of EDTA and citric acid solutions for metal removal was studied by extraction of sludge samples with chelators. Chemical extraction of selected metals was effective for both types of solution. Optimal concentration of EDTA was 0.100M for Zn, Ni and Cd, 0.075 M for Cu and Pb. Optimal concentration of citric acid was 0.500 M for all analyzed metals