The presented work describes the results of examination of the mechanical properties of castings made either of AlSi9Mg alloy matrix composite reinforced with short carbon fibre or of the pure AlSi9Mg alloy. The tensile strength, the yield strength, Young’s modulus, and the unit elongation were examined both for initial castings and for castings made of the remelted composite or AlSi9Mg alloy. After preparing metallographic specimens, the structure of the remelted materials was assessed. A few non-metallic inclusions were observed in the structure of the remelted composite, not occurring in the initial castings. Mechanical testing revealed that all the examined properties of the initial composite material exceed those of the non-reinforced matrix. A decrease in mechanical properties was stated both for the metal matrix and for the composite after the remelting process, but this decrease was so slight that it either does not preclude them from further use or does not restrict the range of their application.
Carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified with F-300 commercial activated carbon or Norit SX- 2 powdered activated carbon. CPEs were prepared for detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,6-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,6-D) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,6-T). The electrochemical behavior of these materials was investigated employing cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The modifier was found to enhance the electroactive surface area and the peak current in comparison to the bare (unmodified) carbon paste electrode. The intensity of the signal increased with the increase in adsorption ability of the modifiers. Compared to the unmodified electrode, all the new paste electrodes showed a much greater sensitivity for detection of chlorinated phenoxyacetic acids in water samples.
Deoxidation of steel with carbon under reduced pressure is often used for increasing the steel purity. Suitable units for this purpose in foundries are vacuum induction furnaces. Possibilities of increasing the steel purity by deoxidation with carbon in the vacuum induction furnace were studied for the steel for the petrochemistry of specific composition 25Cr/35Ni. The charge composed of the return material only was melted in the air. During melting the charge oxidized and the oxidizing slag formed. Chemical composition of steel, morphology, chemical composition of inclusions in the steel and chemical composition of slag after vacuuming were studied on the basis of samples taken before and after vacuuming. Temperature and oxygen activity were measured before and after vacuuming. Globular inclusions with dominant content of silicon and manganese were observed in steel before and after vacuuming. Contents of total oxygen in steel didn’t change significantly during vacuuming. On the basis of composition of inclusions and measured oxygen activity the activity of Cr2O3 in inclusions was calculated. A slag sample was taken after vacuuming and equilibrium oxygen activity in steel with regard to the Cr2O3 content in the slag was estimated from the slag composition. Equilibrium oxygen activity in relation to the Cr2O3 content in the slag was higher than equilibrium activity measured in the steel. For this reason it is not possible, under the studied conditions, to decrease oxygen content in steel during vacuuming.
The paper looks at an analysis of the tendency of changes in the fuel structure of electricity generation and thus resulting changes in carbon dioxide emissions. Forecasts drawn up by various institutions and organizations were selected for the analysis. Firstly, on the basis of statistical data contained in (IEA 2017a, IEA 2008) and with the use of Kay’s indicators, the impact of changes in energy intensity of the national income and energy mix on changes in carbon dioxide emissions per capita in 2006–2015 for the OECD countries and Poland were analyzed. A small effect of changes was found in the fuel mix in this period of time on the emissions. The main impact was due to changes in the energy intensity of the national income and changes in the national income per capita. Next, selected fuel scenarios for the period up to 2050 (60) were discussed – WEC, IEA, EIA, BP, Shell, with a focus on the WEC scenarios. These have been developed for various assumptions with regard to the pace of economic development, population growth, and developments of the political situation and the situation on the fuel market. For this reason, it is difficult to assess the reliability thereof. The subject of the discussion was mainly the data on the fuel structure of electricity generation and energy intensity of national income and changes in carbon dioxide emissions. The final part of the paper offers a general analysis of forecasts drawn up for Poland. These are quite diverse, with some of them being developed as part of drawing up the Energy Policy for Poland until 2050, and some covering the period up to 2035. An observation has been made that some forecasts render results similar to those characteristic of the WEC Hard Rock scenario.
The paper presents the results of an analysis of gaseous sensors based on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) by means of the equivalent model theory. The applied theory analyzes the response of the SAW sensor in the steady state affected by carbon monoxide (CO) in air. A thin layer of WO3 has been used as a sensor layer. The acoustical replacing impedance of the sensor layer was used, which takes into account the profile of the concentration of gas molecules in the layer. Thanks to implementing the Ingebrigtsen equation, the authors determined analytical expressions for the relative changes of the velocity of the surface acoustic wave in the steady state. The results of the analysis have shown that there is an optimum thickness of the layer of CO sensor at which the acoustoelectric effect (manifested here as a change in the acoustic wave velocity) is at its highest. The theoretical results were verified and confirmed experimentally