Academic culture is a set of rules (norms and values) regulating the institution of the university. The central component of academic culture is autonomy both in the sense of independence from external interference and the capacity to decide on research, teaching and organization of the university. Autonomy is endangered by the interference in academic culture of other cultural complexes characteristic for modern society: corporate culture, business culture, bureaucratic culture, financial culture, consumer culture. The resulting cultural clash is the reason for current crisis of the university. The defense of autonomy is the ethical and professional duty of scholars.
The aim of the study is to compare the development of self-esteem and identity integration over time among people with disability and without it (data from norm groups), including people with a spinal cord injury as well as with disabilities caused by other reasons. The research examined self-esteem and identity integration of individuals with disability with regard to disability duration, gender, age, correlation analysis of self-esteem and identity integration. The sample consisted of 133 individuals with acquired disabilities. The study used the Polish adaptations of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Multidimensional Self-Assessment Inventory. Additionally, the respondents with disability completed a form with questions about their age, gender, disability duration and its cause. The outcomes of SES and MSEI modules were checked against the norm groups. The results demonstrated that self-esteem and identity integration do not vary with regard to gender, age or acquired disability conditions. The differences between subjects with disability and the normalized group have proven to be negligible. However, the factor that turned out to be highly significant was the disability duration. Differences have been observed among groups with disability lasting up to 4 months, from 4 months to 2 years, from 2 to 6 years and over 6 years. To sum up, self-esteem and identity integration correlation proved to be high and positive. These findings suggested that the higher the self-esteem, the more integrated the identity, regardless of either the disability type or its degree. The level of self-esteem is subject to differentiation primarily due to disability duration.
The University Reform of 1918 was a renewal movement for universities, aimed at their democratization and modernization, initiated by student activities at the National University of Cordoba. Student movements took on a continental dimension and led to many changes in Latin American universities, especially in the field of autonomy and representation of students in university bodies. The introduction of university autonomy has had a profound impact not only on the functioning of the higher education system in Latin America, but also on other areas of social and political life in the region in the following decades. The article presents the Cordoba University Reform from a historical perspective and attempts to evaluate achievements in the implementation of its ideas in the today’s system of higher education in Latin America.
One of the direct results of the collapse of the former USSR was the emergence of centrifugal ethnic minority nationalisms, which posed a threat to the stability of the then newly-established (or restored in the case of the Baltic democracies) states. In this context, one of the mechanisms introduced by the leading elites in several countries (e.g. Latvia, Ukraine, Estonia, the Russian Federation) in order to address the minority diversity issue, ensure stability, and gain international support (in the case of the Baltic states) was a cultural autonomy scheme, which has its origins in the ideas of the late 19th century Austro-Marxist school of thought. This model was successfully implemented once in the past, in inter-war Estonia. However, its modern application, even in cases when it does not just remain on paper (such as in Latvia and Ukraine), seems to serve other motives (e.g. a restitutional framework in Estonia, control of the non-titular minority elites in Russia) rather than the satisfaction of minority cultural needs, thus making cultural autonomy a dead letter.
Fin-de-siècle Central European scholarship takes on a different complexion, if it is approached from the perspective of politically responsible action. The article analyses neither scholarship involved into party politics nor apolitical scientific and scholarly activities but focuses on a specific approach: The scholars I am concerned with in this article strove for the strict division of science and politics; they nevertheless remained committed to political objectives such as improving social conditions. The approaches of Bernard Bolzano, Ernst Mach, Alois Riegl, Sigmund Freud, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Otto Neurath, Hans Kelsen are taken into account.
This article analyses the relationship between the Court of Justice and other international jurisdictions. In particular, it addresses the following question: To what extent is the Court of Justice ready to accept that some aspects of EU law are subject to the jurisdiction of an international body? The answer to this question requires analysis of the precise scope of the principle of autonomy of EU law as this principle could potentially constitute grounds on the basis of which the Court of Justice excludes the transfer of judicial competences to external bodies. For this reason, the article refers to the most important decisions in the field: Opinions 1/91 and 1/92, Opinion 1/09, Opinion 2/13, judgment in C-146/13 Spain v. Parliament and Council and judgment in C-284/14 Achmea. It also discusses the consequences of the application of Article 344 TFEU.