This article presents the concept of fate in the stories of the poet and literary sketches of twentieth-century Russian writer Jurij Dombrowski. The writer creates psychological portraits of Romantic poets, including George Byron, Alexander Gribojedov, Wilhelm Küchelbecker, focusing on selected episodes from their lives. In the article attempt is made to prove that the fate of the nineteenth-century artists serve as an excuse to explain the problems of contemporary author. Characteristics of historical fi gures are made through the prism of Dombrowski’s biography. The combination of biography and autobiography allows Dombrowski to present the subjective concept of the poet: a man condemned to loneliness and misunderstanding, confl icted with the epoch, trying to overcome the tragic dependence on historical conditions through art and creativity.
The discovery of some hitherto unknown documents relating to Bolesław Leśmian’s family has made it possible to re-read his autobiographical poems as responses to circumstances and events from the poet’s real life. An analysis of his poems in the light of the information supplied by the newly-discovered source shows that they provide a thoroughly accurate record of events as they happened, especially deaths. Not only do the deaths of his mother, father and his siblings hurt him deeply and foreshadow the end of his own life, but also make him feel guilty for not being able to remember them properly: as his memory fails him, they are condemned to a ‘second death’.
There is a general agreement that remembering depends not only on the memory processes as such but rather that encoding, storage and retrieval are under the constant influence of the overarching, metacognitive processes. Moreover, many interventions designed to improve memory refer in fact to metacognition. Most attempts to integrate the very different theoretical and experimental approaches in this domain focus on encoding, whereas there is relatively little integration of approaches that focus on retrieval. Therefore, we reviewed the studies that used new ideas to improve memory retrieval due to a “metacognitive intervention”. We concluded that whereas single experimental manipulations were not likely to increase metacognitive ability, more extensive interventions were. We proposed possible theoretical perspectives, namely the Source Monitoring Framework, as a means to integrate the two, so far separate, ways of thinking about the role of metacognition in retrieval: the model of strategic regulation of memory, and the research on appraisals in autobiographical memory. We identified venues for future research which could address, among other issues, integration of these perspectives.