This paper presents the study of the impact of vibration induced by the movement of the railway rolling stock on the Forum Gdańsk structure. This object is currently under construction and is located over the railway tracks in the vicinity of the Gdańsk Główny and Gdańsk Śródmieście railway stations. The analysis covers the influence of vibrations on the structure itself and on the people within. The in situ measurements on existing parts of the structure allow us to determine environmental excitations used for validation and verification of the derived FEM model. The numerical calculations made the estimates of the vibration amplitudes propagating throughout the whole structure possible.
The standard PN-EN_1993-1-5:_2008 (Eurocode 3) compared with the standard (PN-B-03200:_1990) used previously in Poland, introduces extended rules referring to the computations of the bearing capacity of the plated structural elements including the shear lag effect. The stress distribution in the width flanges is variable. Therefore in the case of the beam with the shear lag effect cannot be calculated by the classic beam theory. In this article a comparison of the results of the calculations of forces distribution, stresses and displacement according to the rule presented in PN-EN_1993 and results of the numerical computations for_3D model (using finite element method) is presented. The elastic shear lag effects, the elastic shear lag effects including effects of the plate buckling and the elastic-plastic shear lag effects including the local instabilities were analysed. The calculations were performed for beams with a small and a large span and an influence of stiffeners was analysed.
Monitoring the solidification process is of great importance for understanding the quality of the melt, for controlling it, and for predicting the true properties of the alloy. Solidification is accompanied by the development of heat, the magnitude of which depends on the different phases occurring during solidification. Thermal analysis is now an important part of and tool for quality control, especially when using secondary aluminium alloys in the automotive industry. The effect of remelting on the change of crystallization of individual structural components of experimental AlSi9Cu3 alloy was determined by evaluation of cooling curves and their first derivatives. Structural analysis was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. The effect of remelting was manifested especially in nucleation of phases rich in iron and copper. An increasing number of remelts had a negative effect after the fourth remelting, when harmful iron phases appeared in the structure in much larger dimensions.
The article is focused on the most recent investigations of glaciotectonic structures in high escarpment exposures of the Vistula valley from Dobrzyń to Kuzki in the western part of the Płock Basin. Deformations involve Neogene and occasionally the Lower Pleistocene deposits and they are not expressed as landforms. Structural investigations and analysis of archival geological data provided new information on the origin of large-scale shear structures. Results obtained are clearly contrary to the concept of Brykczyński (1982) regarding valley-side glaciotectonics in the Płock Basin. An emergence of the extensive zone of serial thrust structures of significant amplitude (up to 100–150 m) was found to have not been controlled by a palaeovalley. A driving mechanism is interpreted as a gravity spreading in front of ice sheets advancing from north-northeast during the South Polish Complex (Dorst-Elsterian).
This paper is concerned with the 1st stage of HP rotor blade assembly steam turbine TK 120. The methodology was focused on the selection of mechanical properties and the way of the rotor disc modeling and estimating the degree of damage caused by creep. Then the dynamic interference between the frequencies of excitation and the natural frequencies was assessed. Static calculations were performed for the cyclic sectors consisting of the disc, disc blades, spacers and shrouding, including loads as temperature, mass forces from the angular velocity and the pressure on the blades. Then, the creep analysis using a Norton’s model and the modal analysis were performed. Static analysis gave information concerning the distributions of displacements, stress and strain components. In the creep analysis, the creep displacements and stress relaxation versus time were determined and the estimated degree of damage caused by creep was evaluated at each part of the rotor disc. In the modal analysis, the natural frequencies and modes of vibrations corresponding to the nodal diameters were found. The results of modal analysis were shown in the SAFE graph. Numerical calculations have shown that the rotor disc was a well-designed structure and did not reveal any dynamic interference.
The Carpathian Orava Basin is a tectonic structure filled with Neogene and Quaternary deposits superimposed on the collision zone between the ALCAPA and European plates. Tectonic features of the south-eastern margin of the Orava Basin and the adjoining part of the fore-arc Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin were studied. Field observations of mesoscopic structures, analyses of digital elevation models and geological maps, supplemented with electrical resistivity tomography surveys were performed. Particular attention was paid to joint network analysis. The NE-SW-trending Krowiarki and Hruštinka-Biela Orava sinistral fault zones were recognized as key tectonic features that influenced the Orava Basin development. They constitute the north-eastern part of a larger Mur-Mürz-Žilina fault system that separates the Western Carpathians from the Eastern Alps. The interaction of these sinistral fault zones with the older tectonic structures of the collision zone caused the initiation and further development of the Orava Basin as a strike-slip-related basin. The Krowiarki Fault Zone subdivides areas with a different deformation pattern within the sediments of the Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin and was active at least from the time of cessation of its sedimentation in the early Miocene. Comparison of structural data with the recent tectonic stress field, earthquake focal mechanisms and GPS measurements allows us to conclude that the Krowiarki Fault Zone shows a stable general pattern of tectonic activity for more than the last 20 myr and is presently still active.
A numerical method is developed for estimating the acoustic power of any baffled planar structure, which is vibrating with arbitrary surface velocity profile. It is well known that this parameter may be calculated with good accuracy using near field data, in terms of an impedance matrix, which is generated by the discretization of the vibrating surface into a number of elementary radiators. Thus, the sound pressure field on the structure surface can be determined by a combination of the matrix and the volume velocity vector. Then, the sound power can be estimated through integration of the acoustic intensity over a closed surface. On the other hand, few works exist in which the calculation is done in the far field from near field data by the use of radiation matrices, possibly because the numerical integration becomes complicated and expensive due to large variations of directivity of the source. In this work a different approach is used, based in the so-called Propagating Matrix, which is useful for calculating the sound pressure of an arbitrary number of points into free space, and it can be employed to estimate the sound power by integrating over a finite number of pressure points over a hemispherical surface surrounding the vibrating structure. Through numerical analysis, the advantages/disadvantages of the current method are investigated, when compared with numerical methods based on near field data. A flexible rectangular baffled panel is considered, where the normal velocity profile is previously calculated using a commercial finite element software. However, the method can easily be extended to any arbitrary shape. Good results are obtained in the low frequency range showing high computational performance of the method. Moreover, strategies are proposed to improve the performance of the method in terms of both computational cost and speed.
The main objective of this work was to present a successful stabilization action of a building structure in an active landslide. Firstly, history of the case and a FEM simulation explaining ensuing situation are presented. Then different structural measures to stabilize the whole system are discussed. The structural solution of the problem (pile system reaching solid rocky zone) is presented in more detailed way. The estimation of forces acting on the structure, caused by an unstable soil mass, being crucial for the design of stabilizing structure is described.
This article combines a general introduction to the crime fi ction of Walery Przyborowski with a study of the structure of the plot of his novels. The analyses of ten of his novels conclude with a typology of their narrative schemes, shown in the context of certain invariant patterns and the conventions of related literary genres. While the main objective of this study is to outline the structure of crime story and the social issues depicted in Przyborowski’s crime fi ction, it also pays some attention to the ways in which it refl ects his concerns about contemporary life and the condition of Poland under foreign rule. Basically, Przyborowski’s formula is to make use of the staples of the genre – mystery, adventure, romance – and the techniques of the popular novel. Moreover, his novels, like all of the 19th-century crime fi ctions, are clearly indebted to the conventions of the historical novel.
Airborne acoustic properties of composite structural insulated panels CSIPs composed of fibre-magnesium-cement facesheets and expanded polystyrene core were studied. The sound reduction ratings were measured experimentally in an acoustic test laboratory composed of two reverberation chambers. The numerical finite element (FEM) model of an acoustic laboratory available in ABAQUS was used and verified with experimental results. Steady-state and transient FE analyses were performed. The 2D and 3D modelling FE results were compared. Different panel core modifications were numerically tested in order to improve the airborne sound insulation of CSIPs.
This experimental paper comprises the results of acoustic emission (AE), microscopic and ultrasonic measurements of samples subjected to slowly increasing compressive stress. On the basis of conducted measurements the successive stages of the material structural degradation have been recognized. The objects of study were samples made of C 120 aluminous porcelain. The investigated material has found at present the application in the fabrication of technical elements like overhead power line insulators. In the case of such objects, not only high mechanical strength, but especially elevated durability as well as operational reliability are required. The expected "life time" of net insulators during exploitation is about 40 years. The analysis of obtained mechanoacoustic dependences pointed out a complex mechanism of degradation of the material. Microscopic investigation of samples, which were stressed to different levels of load, enabled to specify the development of gradual growth of microcracks and successive crushing out of elements of the structure. These processes appear to be similar to the ageing processes occurring in the material during long period of exploitation under a working load. Three stages of the structure degradation were distinguished. The preliminary and subcritical ones show low or moderate intensity of AE signals and considerable variety for the particular samples. The critical stage directly precedes the destructtion of samples. Its range is relatively narrow and reveals the AE activity of high energy. The effectiveness of dispersive and fibrous reinforcement of modern aluminous porcelain C 120 type has been described. Structural strengthening by corundum grains and mullite needle shaped crystals improves mechanical parameters and distinguishes this material from typical aluminosilicate ceramics. The presented results enable drawing up the conclusions concerning the resistance of investigated material to the ageing degradation process development during long term operation.
The linear 3D piezoelasticity theory along with active damping control (ADC) strategy are applied for non-stationary vibroacoustic response suppression of a doubly fluid-loaded functionally graded piezolaminated (FGPM) composite hollow cylinder of infinite length under general time-varying excitations. The control gain parameters are identified and tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA) with a multi-objective performance index that constrains the key elasto-acoustic system parameters and control voltage. The uncontrolled and controlled time response histories due to a pair of equal and opposite impulsive external point loads are calculated by means of Durbin’s numerical inverse Laplace transform algorithm. Numerical simulations demonstrate the superior (good) performance of the GA-optimized distributed active damping control system in effective attenuation of sound pressure transients radiated into the internal (external) acoustic space for two basic control configurations. Also, some interesting features of the transient fluid-structure interaction control problem are illustrated via proper 2D time domain images and animations of the 3D sound field. Limiting cases are considered and accuracy of the formulation is established with the aid of a commercial finite element package as well as comparisons with the current literature.