The article is focused on the most recent investigations of glaciotectonic structures in high escarpment exposures of the Vistula valley from Dobrzyń to Kuzki in the western part of the Płock Basin. Deformations involve Neogene and occasionally the Lower Pleistocene deposits and they are not expressed as landforms. Structural investigations and analysis of archival geological data provided new information on the origin of large-scale shear structures. Results obtained are clearly contrary to the concept of Brykczyński (1982) regarding valley-side glaciotectonics in the Płock Basin. An emergence of the extensive zone of serial thrust structures of significant amplitude (up to 100–150 m) was found to have not been controlled by a palaeovalley. A driving mechanism is interpreted as a gravity spreading in front of ice sheets advancing from north-northeast during the South Polish Complex (Dorst-Elsterian).
Bryozoans were found in upper Cenozoic diamictite debris that crops out at the southwestern tip of Cape Lamb, Vega Island. The diamictite is the youngest deposit on the island and richly composed of foraminifers, brachiopods and scallops. The foraminifera assemblage recovered from the Cape Lamb diamictite and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic age obtained from the pectinid Adamussium colbecki in the nearby locality of Terrapin indicates a Pleistocene age for this deposit. The main goal of this contribution is to present a bryozoan assemblage of Microporella stenoporta Hayward et Taylor, Hippothoa flagellum Manzoni, Ellisina antarctica (Kluge), Micropora notialis Hayward et Ryland and an indeterminate crisiid constituting the first record of these bryozoan taxa in Cenozoic diamictites of the Antarctic Peninsula.
The objective of this paper is a review of data on reconstruction of the Pleistocene palaeogeography (environment) and stratigraphy based on studies of karst sites in the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains. Although the number of known Pleistocene karst sites in this region is small, the investigations of them have played a crucial role in a research of the Pleistocene. The study of the Kozi Grzbiet site provided the first evidences for new climatostratigraphy and classification of glaciations in Poland. The explanation of genesis of cryogenic calcite crystals discovered in Chelosiowa Jama-Jaskinia Jaworznicka cave system started a new direction of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of the last glacial period. Kadzielnia palaeontological site was one of the first Early Pleistocene fossil assemblages in karst studied in Poland, whereas Raj cave provided abundant palaeontological and archaeological material from the Last Glacial. Other sites are of less scientific importance, however some of them can be used in education and popularisation of geosciences. Small number of already studied sites does not exclude discoveries of next sites of high scientific importance.
The Vistulian decline was a period of rapid environmental events. The authors correlated ages of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet limits in northern Poland with ages of prominent events adapting the conditions of periglacial environment of Central Poland in response to the Late Vistulian climate warming. Ages from previous thematic geological and palaeogeographical studies were collected. The approach used indicates that despite methodological uncertainties and sometimes inconsistency of ages, it is especially helpful in timing of first warming signals (ca. 19–18 cal ka BP) and establishing of environmentally bipartite 3 millennia of the Oldest Dryas in the extraglacial zone. Abrupt warming at the onset of the Bølling-Allerød is well registered in biotic and abiotic archives available from Central Poland and remains in agreement with the large recession of the southern ice sheet margin.
Hladnikia pastinacifolia RCHB., a narrow endemic, has an extremely restricted distribution in Trnovski gozd (Slovenia), despite the presence of many sites with suitable habitats. We compared the morphological traits of plants from different populations and habitats. The overall pattern showed that the smallest plants, with low fruit number, are found on Èaven (locus classicus or type locality); the largest individuals, with high fruit number, grow in the Golobnica gorge. As judged by plant size and seed set, the optimal habitats are screes. We used RAPD markers to estimate genetic variation between and within populations, as well as between and within the northern and the southern parts of the distribution area. Hladnikia showed only a low level of RAPD variability. AMOVA partitioned the majority of genetic diversity within selected populations. The low genetic differentiation between populations and their genetic depauperation indicates survival in situ, since the Trnovski gozd plateau most likely was a nunatak region in the southern Prealps during Pleistocene glaciations. Later range expansion of extant populations was limited by poor seed dispersal. We also analyzed the cpDNA trnL-F intergenic spacer to check whether the sequence is useful for studying the phylogenetic relationships of Hladnikia within the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae). Our results support the assertion that H. pastinacifolia is an old taxon.
The site at Orłowo Cliff was used to analyse the stratigraphic position and palaeogeographic interpretations of the properties and depositional conditions of two basal tills from the Late Pleistocene. A multi-proxy approach involved lithofacies, petrographic analysis of the fine gravel fraction, analyses of indicator erratics and till fabric. TL dating of intra-moraine deposits was used to determine depositional time frames of tills. The sediment profile at Orłowo Cliff shows a distinct reduction in number of Pleistocene units. Obtained dating results suggest the presence of Middle and Late Pleistocene fluvial units. The main issue discussed is the stratigraphic position of the older till (Unit O-4). It can be assumed that this till was deposited probably during the Middle Weichselian (MIS4). At Orłowo Horn the till of Unit O-4 reveals incorporation of the erratic material derived from an older till in the surrounded area (according to petrographic composition – probably from MIS 8). The younger till (Unit O-6) was deposited in the Late Weichselian (MIS 2). Moreover, the till of Unit O-6 is characterised by a significant shift towards the south-west in terms of the erratic origin in Unit O-4.
An accumulation of glacial sediments is located near Písečná village in the depression between the Sokol Ridge and Zlaté Hory Highlands NNE of Jeseník town (Eastern Sudetes). The accumulation lies at the lateral side of the mountain valley of the Bělá River and fills a preglacial palaeovalley of this river. Research combining facies analysis of outcrops, ground penetrating radar survey, interpretation drilling survey, and modelling of the preglacial relief was undertaken at the site. According to the results obtained, the upper part of the sedimentary accumulation represents a coarse-grained terminoglacial glaciofluvial delta of the Gilbert type. The development of the accumulation has dominantly been driven by the preglacial morphology. Facies typical for foresets of coarse-grained deltas represented mainly by high-density flows, cohesionless debris flows, debris falls and less common low-density flows were found in the outcrops. The delta near Písečná prograded into a lake dammed by the ice-sheet front in the north. The lake was bounded by the slopes of Sokol Ridge, Zlaté Hory Highlands and Góry Parkowe on other sides. The lake level reached an altitude of up to 430 m a.s.l., as the coarse-grained delta plain base lies at this level.