The paper discusses a theoretical and an experimental analyses of steel wire drawing in conical drawing dies with a varying length of the die sizing portion. The theoretical analysis was performed in the Drawing 2D, where the wire temperature and drawing stress were determined. The theoretical study was verified by the measurement of drawing force under laboratory conditions and by industrial multi-stage drawing tests carried out under commercial conditions. A relationship has been shown to exist between die sizing portion length and wire temperature and drawing stress.
The draw theory is the foundation for decreasing ore loss and dilution indices while extracting deposits from mines. Therefore, research on draw theory is of great significance to optimally guide the draw control and improve the economy efficiency of mines. The laboratory scaled physical draw experiments under inclined wall condition conducted showed that a new way was proposed to investigate the flow zone of granular materials. The flow zone was simply divided into two parts with respect to the demarcation point of the flow axis. Based on the stochastic medium draw theory, theoretical movement formulas were derived to define the gravity flow of fragmented rocks in these two parts. The ore body with 55° dip and 10 m width was taken as an example, the particle flow parameters were fitted, and the corresponding theoretical shape of the draw body was sketched based on the derived equation of draw-body shape. The comparison of experimental and theoretical shapes of the draw body confirmed that they coincided with each other; hence, the reliability of the derived equation of particle motion was validated.
Many wire products (e.g. nets) are made from galvanized material. The hot dip galvanizing process gives the possibility of applying in a respectively thick coat of zinc (also depending on the time of staying wires in the bath) which provides the protection of the product against corrosion. In the available literature there were no research concerned with the influence of hot dip galvanizing process on the mechanical properties TRIP structure steel wires. Therefore, an experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions allowing the determination of the influence of hot dip galvanizing process parameters on the mechanical properties (tensile strength UST and yield strength YS) of TRIP steel wires as well as on the amount of retained austenite in their structure. It has been stated that the hot galvanizing process of TRIP steel wires influences, proportionally to the time of staying wires in zinc bath, on their plastic properties (the increase in yield strength YS) as well as the decrease in the amount of retained austenite in their structure. Such a phenomenon can be caused by stresses responsible for rapid heating of the wire put in the zinc bath in temperature of 450°C and by the strengthening of the materials resulting from the transformation of retained austenite.
In this paper, an attempt was made to explain the causes of surface delamination in high carbon steel wires during the torsion test. For end wires with 1.7 mm diameter drawn at speeds of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 m/s, technological tests were carried out. Then the susceptibility of the wire to plastic strain was determined. The microstructure analysis complemented the research. Analysis of the fracture torsion test showed that the wires drawn at speeds exceeding 15 m/s are delamination, which disqualify it as a material for a rope and a spring. The source of delamination in high carbon steel wires is their stronger strengthening, especially of the surface layer, which leads to a decrease in the orientation of the cementite laminaes and an increase in the degree of their fragmentation.
In the paper an analysis of the influence of two parameters on the die wear, i.e. the shape of the die and the backpull with the specified force values has been presented. The conical and curve-profile tools have been selected to determine an influence of the die geometry on its wear, and the backpull force has been tested with the use of conical dies. The research was conducted for the drawing of copper wire by sintered carbide die with a mesh diameter of 3 mm. A fixed draw value of 30% relative gap loss was assumed. The axisymmetric numerical model of the drawing process was built and modeled in the MARC/Mentat commercial program for nonlinear and contact issues. As a result of the tests, wear of the dies according to their shape was determined. In addition, for the conical die the drawing force and the force of the metal pressure on the die using different values of the force of the contraction were calculated, as well as wear of the conical die according to the value of the applied backpull force. It has been shown that in the case of the arc die, the distribution of pressure and stress is more uniform over the entire length of the contact zone compared to the conical die. The highest stress gradients occurred in the area of the transition of the crushing part into the drawing part of the die, which caused that the use of the conical die in this area was more than twice as large as the arc die. In addition, on the example of a conical die, it was shown to what extent the depth of its wear decreases with an increase of the test pull force in the range (0-400) of Newtons.
An analysis of the effect of drawing speed on the formation of a zinc coating in the multi-stage fine steel wire drawing process has been carried out in the article. Pre-hardened 2.2 mm-diameter material was drawn into 1.00 mm-diameter wire in 6 draws on a multi-stage drawing machine. The drawing process was carried out at a drawing speed of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 20 m/s, respectively. Mechanical tests were tests were performed for the final wires to determine their yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform and total elongation and reduction in area. The thickness of the zinc coating on the wire surface was determined by the gravimetric method and based on metallographic examination. The use of electron scanning microscopy, on the other hand, enabled the identification of individual phases in the zinc coating. The above investigations were supplemented with corrosion testing of 1.00 mm-diameter wires. It has been demonstrated that drawing speed significantly influences not only the thickness of the zinc coating on the drawn wire surface, buts also its morphology and corrosion resistance.
The paper analyzes the effect of ageing on the variations in the mechanical and technological properties of steel wire. The process of drawing 5.5 mm-diameter wire rod into 1.70 mm wire was carried out in 12 draws on a Koch KGT multi-stage drawing machine in the drawing velocity range of 5-25 m/s. Finished 1.7 mm-diameter wires after, respectively, 1, 24, 720 and 8760 hours of the completion of the drawing process were subjected to testing to determine their mechanical and technological properties. The yield strength, YS; tensile strength, UTS; uniform elongation, Ar; total elongation, Ac; reduction of area, Z; number of twists, Nt; and the number of bends, Nb, have been determined. It has been demonstrated that variations in mechanical properties occur after the multi-stage drawing process due to ageing, with their degree and mode being dependent on the drawing speed.
Electron beam melting(EBM) is a useful technique to obtain high-purity metal ingots. It is also used for melting refractory metals such as tantalum, which require melting techniques employing a high-energy heat source. Drawing is a method which is used to convert the ingot into a wire shape. The required thickness of the wire is achieved by drawing the ingot from a drawing die with a hole of similar size. This process is used to achieve high purity tantalum springs, which are an essential component of lithography lamp in semiconductor manufacturing process. Moreover, high-purity tantalum is used in other applications such as sputtering targets for semiconductors. Studies related to recycling of tantalum from these components have not been carried out until now. The recycling of tantalum is vital for environmental and economic reasons. In order to obtain high-purity tantalum ingot, in this study impurities contained in the scrap were removed by electron beam melting after pre-treatment using aqua regia. The purity of the ingot was then analyzed to be more than 4N5 (99.995%). Subsequently, drawing was performed using the rod melted by electron beam melting. Owing to continuous drawing, the diameter of the tantalum wire decreased to 0.5 mm from 9 mm. The hardness and oxygen concentration of the tantalum ingot were 149 Hv and less than 300 ppm, respectively, whereas the hardness of the tantalum wire was 232.12 Hv. In conclusion, 4N5 grade tantalum wire was successfully fabricated from tantalum scrap by EBM and drawing techniques. Furthermore, procedure to successfully recycle Tantalum from scraps was established.
In multi-stage wire drawing machines productivity growth can be achieved at higher drawing speeds by preventing wire breakage during the process. One disadvantage of high-speed wire drawing is the requirement imposed by machine dynamics in terms of its stability and reliability during operation. Tensile forces in the wire must maintained by fast synchronization of all capstans speed. In this process, the displacement sensors play the main role in providing the control system with feedback information about the wire condition. In this study, the influences between the sensors and actuator driven capstans have been studied, and tuner roll concept of a wire drawing machine was experimentally investigated. To this aim, measurements were carried out on two drawing stages at different drawing speeds and obtained results were presented. These results clearly show the fast changes of the capstans speed and the angular displacements of the rollers that tighten the wire, which only confirms the high dynamics of the wire drawing machine.