In this fast-changing environmental condition, the effect of fossil fuel in vehicle is a significant concern. Many sustainable sources are being studied to replace the exhausting fossil fuel in most of the countries. This paper surveys the types of electric vehicle’s energy sources and current scenario of the onroad electric vehicle and its technical challenges. It summarizes the number of state-of-the-art research progresses in bidirectional dcdc converters and its control strategies reported in last two decades. The performance of the various topologies of bidirectional dc-dc converters is also tabulated along with their references. Hence, this work will present a clear view on the development of state-of-the-art topologies in bidirectional dc-dc converters. This review paper will be a guide for the researchers for selecting suitable bidirectional traction dc-dc converters for electric vehicle and it gives the clear picture of this research field.
The measurement of frequency characteristics, like magnitude and phase, related to a specific transfer function of DC–DC converters, can be a difficult task – especially when the measured signal approaches the boundary of a small-signal model validity (i:e. 1/3 of the switching frequency fS). It is hard to find a paper where authors mention the measurement techniques they use to draw frequency characteristics. Meanwhile the presence of noise in the output signal does not enable to directly measure the gain and the phase shift between the input and output signals. In such situations additional analysis is required in order to achieve a reliable result. This paper contains a description of a few methods that can be used to analyse measured signals in order to determine the gain and the phase shift of a specific transfer function. They enable to verify mathematical models in a wide range of frequencies (up to 1/3 fS). The methods use signals measured in the time domain and can be implemented in mathematical software such as Matlab or Scilab.
This paper presents a concept and the results of an investigation of a DC–DC boost converter with high voltage gain and a reduced number of switches. The novel concept assumes that the converter operates in a topology composed of series connection switched- capacitor-based multiplier (SCVM) sections. Furthermore, the structure of the sections has significant impact on parameters of the converter which is discussed in this paper. The paper demonstrates the basic benefit such a multisection SCVM idea in the converter, which is the significant reduction in the number of switches and diodes for high voltage gain in comparison to an SCVM converter. Aside from the number of switches and diodes, such parameters as efficiency and volume of passive components in the multisection converter are analyzed in this paper. In figures, the analysis is demonstrated using the example of 100 kW thyristor-based converters. All the characteristics of the converter are compared between various configurations of switching cells in the particular sections, thus the paper can be useful for a design approach for a high voltage gain multicell converter.
In the description of small-signal transmittances of switch-mode power converters several characteristic frequencies are usually used, corresponding to poles and zeros of transmittances. The knowledge of these frequencies is important in the design of control circuits for converters and usually are assumed to be constant for a given power stage of a converter. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the influence of converter primary parameters and load conductance on characteristic frequencies. Analytical derivations and numerical calculations are performed for an ideal and non-ideal BUCK converter working in continuous or discontinuous conduction mode.
The paper treats about main problems of one phase DC-AC microinverters that allow single solar cell to be joined with the grid. One of the issues is to achieve high voltage gain with high efficiency in DC circuit, which is necessary for proper operation of inverter. The operating principles, results of practical implementation and investigations on boost-flyback converter, which meets mentioned demands, are presented. (high step-up DC-DC boost-flyback converter for single phase grid microinverter).
In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ηMAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.